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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


June 2022
Cut Bench Mark with BoltEdinburgh, Holyrood Palace
May 2022
RivetHaringey, Finsbury Park, Shelter
April 2022
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, Newtown Road Cemetery (N)
PivotNewbury, Newtown Road Cemetery Lodge
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, Newtown Road Cemetery (S)
DestroyedNewbury, Andover Road PC
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLondon, St Magnus the Martyr Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLondon, Custom House (NW)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLondon, Custom House (SE)
Cut Bench MarkLondon, 61 Mark Lane
Cut Bench MarkLondon, The Hung Drawn and Quartered
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLondon, St Dunstan-in-the-East Church
Cut Bench MarkLondon, St Margaret Pattens Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLondon, St Mary-at-Hill Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLondon, The Monument
Cut Bench MarkLondon, St Edmund the King Church
Cut Bench MarkLondon, 82 King William Street
DestroyedLondon, 13 Sherborne Lane
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLondon, St Mary Woolnoth Church
Cut Bench MarkLondon, Bank of England
Cut Bench MarkLondon, 1 Queen Victoria Street
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLondon, St Stephen Walbrook Church
DestroyedLondon, Dowgate Hill
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLondon, St Michael Paternoster Royal Church
Cut Bench MarkBognor Regis, 1 Crescent Road
DestroyedBognor Regis, 14 Longford Road
DestroyedBognor Regis, 99/101 Longford Road
Cut Bench MarkBognor Regis, 72 Longford Road
Flush BracketS6644 - Axbridge, Town Hall
Cut Bench MarkWaterperry, 23 Waterperry
RivetCulham, Andersey Island Causeway
Cut Bench MarkSandford-on-Thames, Sandford Lock House
DestroyedUffington, South View Farm
UnknownUffington, Woolstone Road
Cut Bench MarkUffington, Broad Way
DestroyedNewbury, A339 Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, Railway Station
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, 27 Argyle Road
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, City Mission Hall
DestroyedRadley, Radley Road Overbridge
Cut Bench MarkRadley, Goose Acre Farm
March 2022
Cut Bench MarkPaignton, Victoria Park Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkPaignton, 43 Victoria Street
Cut Bench MarkPaignton, The Picture House
Cut Bench MarkGloucester, 37 Westgate Street
Cut Bench MarkGloucester, Holy Trinity Cathedral, SE Angle
February 2022
UnknownOxford, Radcliffe Science Library
Cut Bench MarkBurton Bradstock, Old Coastguard Station
DestroyedBurton Bradstock, Burton Common
Cut Bench MarkBurton Bradstock, Hive Beach
UnknownWeymouth, 95 Bowleaze Coveway
Cut Bench MarkWeymouth, 8 Custom House Quay
DestroyedWeymouth, New Street
OSBM BoltWeymouth, Tide Gauge Aux 4
OSBM BoltWeymouth, Tide Gauge Aux 3
UnknownWeymouth, Tide Gauge Aux 2
OSBM BoltWeymouth, Tide Gauge Aux 1
Cut Bench MarkWeymouth, 6 The Esplanade
Cut Bench MarkWeymouth, Edward Court
Cut Bench MarkWeymouth, Alexandra Gardens
DestroyedWeymouth, Cutter Hotel
Cut Bench MarkWeymouth, Maiden Street
Cut Bench MarkWeymouth, 20 Helen Lane
Cut Bench MarkWeymouth, Guildhall
Cut Bench MarkWeymouth, 61 St Thomas Street
Cut Bench MarkWeymouth, 65 St Thomas Street
DestroyedWeymouth, 8-9 Bond Street
Cut Bench MarkWeymouth, 104C St Mary Street
UnknownWeymouth, Gloucester Hotel
Cut Bench MarkChristchurch, Red House Museum
UnknownChristchurch, 10 Quay Road
Cut Bench MarkChristchurch, Place Mill
Cut Bench Mark with BoltChristchurch, Priory Church of the Holy Trinity
UnknownHengistbury Head, PC Block No. 1
Cut Bench MarkHengistbury Head, The Black House
UnknownHengistbury Head, PC Block No. 5
UnknownBlack Down, Hardy Coppice
Cut Bench Mark with BoltBlack Down, Hardy Monument
RivetBlack Down, NW of Hardy Monument
Cut Bench MarkAbbotsbury, Gorwell Farm
Cut Bench MarkWest Bay, Methodist Church
UnknownWest Bay, Pumping Station
Flush Bracket12074 - West Bay
Cut Bench MarkWest Bay, Harbour Bridge
DestroyedWest Bay, First Cliff Walk / West Cliff Road
UnknownBere Regis, Old Townsend Farmhouse
Cut Bench MarkNewark-on-Trent, Northgate Railway Station
Cut Bench MarkReading, London Road / Liverpool Road
UnknownReading, Wokingham Road / Bulmershe Road
Cut Bench MarkBasingstoke, Bunnian Place Railway Bridge
DestroyedNewbury, 25 Buckingham Road
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, Andover Road / Wendan Road
January 2022
Cut Bench MarkChilton, All Saints' Church
Cut Bench MarkUpton, St Mary's Church


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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