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Explanation of Types
These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.
One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes.
Reading, Greyfriar's Church
Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol.
Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark
By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge.
Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt
Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers.
Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks.
Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot.
Fundamental Bench Mark
These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling.
Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side.
Plymouth, Wyndham Street East
Plymouth, Cathedral House
Plymouth, 1 The Esplanade
Plymouth, Hoe Promenade, Entrance Pillar
Plymouth, 16 Elliot Street
Plymouth, Cliff Road, SW Hoe Entrance
Plymouth, Leigham Street
Plymouth, Cliff Road, SW Shelter
Plymouth, Cliff Road opp. 19
Plymouth, Radford Road opp. 5 Northumberland Terrace
Plymouth, Radford Road / Garden Crescent
Plymouth, 17 Walker Terrace
Plymouth, West Hoe Road / Cliff Road
Plymouth, Millbay Docks
Plymouth, Great Western Road opp. Garden Crescent
Plymouth, Grand Parade opp. Rear 26
Plymouth, Rock Cottage
Plymouth, Grand Parade
Plymouth, Maritimo, Hoe Road
Plymouth, Madeira Road, Steps
Plymouth, Madeira Road / Hoe Road
Plymouth, Hoe Promenade
Plymouth, Royal Citadel, West Sally Port
Plymouth, Hoe Park, Outbuilding
Plymouth, Royal Citadel, Prince George's Bastion
S0720 - Plymouth, Lambhay Hill
Plymouth, Royal Citadel, Prince of Wales Bastion
Plymouth, Hoe Road, Park Entrance
Plymouth, Citadel Road opp. 181
Plymouth, Palace Court
Plymouth, 94 Vauxhall Street
Plymouth, Vauxhall Quay
Plymouth, Hawkers Avenue
Plymouth, Harbour Avenue
Plymouth, Sutton Road / Marrowbone Slip
Plymouth, Lockyers Quay
Plymouth, 1 Clare Place
Plymouth, St John's Bridge
Plymouth, St John's Mews
Plymouth, St John the Evangelist Church
Plymouth, 192 Exeter Street
Plymouth, Tothill Road / Desborough Road
Plymouth, Tothill Road Railway Bridge
Plymouth, St Jude's Church
Plymouth, Tothill Avenue opp. Salisbury Road
Plymouth, Tothill Avenue / Beaumont Road
Plymouth, Beaumont Road
Plymouth, Holy Cross Primary School
Plymouth, Charles Church
Plymouth, Eastlake House
Plymouth, 8 Old Town Street
Plymouth, East Quay Dock Office
Plymouth, Cattedown Road
Plymouth, Cattedown Road Archway
Turnchapel, Boringdon Road
Oreston, Lower Saltram
Oreston, 139 Plymstock Road
Plymouth, Bulmer Road Railway Bridge
Plymouth, Lucas Terrace Railway Bridge
Plymouth, Embankment Road, Pylon
Plymouth, Embankment Road, The Embankment
Plymouth, Embankment Road, Lipson Lake
Plymouth, Embankment Road opp. Bus Stop
Plymouth, Arnolds Point
Plymouth, Embankment Road, Lanhydrock Road Bus Stop
Plymouth, New Laira Bridge
Plymouth, Old Laira Bridge
G5016 - Plymouth, Rock Gardens Railway Bridge
Plymouth, Lanhydrock Road Railway Bridge
Plymouth, Beaumont Road, Astor Drive Bus Stop
Plymouth, 66 Elm Road
Plymouth, Ashford Hill
Plymouth, Mutley Methodist Church
Plymouth, 12 Dale Road
Plymouth, 9 Gordon Terrace
Plymouth, 1A Restormel Terrace
Plymouth, 38 Derry Avenue
Plymouth, Houndiscombe Road / Sutherland Road
Plymouth, 48 North Road East
Plymouth, 2 Houndiscombe Road
Plymouth, Houndiscombe Road Junction
Plymouth, 44 Houndiscombe Road
Plymouth, 53 Houndiscombe Road
Plymouth, 20 Napier Terrace
Plymouth, 20 Mutley Plain
Plymouth, Houndiscombe Road Electricity Substation
Plymouth, Mutley Baptist Church
Plymouth, Citadel Road / Lambhay Hill
Plymouth, Friars Lane / New Street
Plymouth, 7 Castle Dyke Lane
Plymouth, 22 Southside Street
Plymouth, The Barbican opp. Admiral MacBride
Plymouth, Barbican Theatre
Plymouth, 63-64 Notte Street
Plymouth, 72 Alma Road
Plymouth, 139 Stuart Road
Plymouth, 18 Wilton Street
Plymouth, Archer Place
Plymouth, Patna Place
Plymouth, The Town House
Plymouth, All Saints' Church
Plymouth, Hastings Terrace
Plymouth, Oxford Street Primary School
Plymouth, 21 Oxford Place
Plymouth, Millbay Station
Plymouth, Richmond Walk opp. Car Park
Plymouth, 253 James Street
Plymouth, Richmond Walk opp. Play Area
Plymouth, Richmond Walk opp. Lido
Plymouth, Richmond Walk, Park Entrance Archway
Plymouth, Richmond Walk opp. Access Slope
Plymouth, Richmond Walk opp. 10 Bakers Place
Plymouth, Richmond Walk, Mayflower Marina
Crowntown, B3303 Gatepost
Truthall, Truthall Halt Railway Bridge
Plymouth, 38/39 Notte Street
Plymouth, St Andrew's Church Wall
Plymouth, The Treasury, Catherine Street
Plymouth, Armada Way PC
Plymouth, Paradise Road Railway Bridge
Plymouth, 31 Alcester Street
Plymouth, 21 Alcester Street
Plymouth, Boscawen Place Railway Bridge
Plymouth, 32 Camperdown Street
Plymouth, 3 Camperdown Street
Plymouth, 28 Pasley Street
Plymouth, Pasley Street Railway Bridge
Plymouth, Royal Navy Avenue Railway Bridge
Plymouth, Royal Navy Avenue opp. St Thomas' Church
Plymouth, Renown Street Electricity Substation
Plymouth, Alexandra Park Entrance
Plymouth, 46 Beatrice Avenue
Plymouth, 56 Station Road
Plymouth, Moor View
Plymouth, Brunel Terrace Railway Bridge
Plymouth, 1 Railway Cottages
Plymouth, North Prospect Road opp. Buckfast Close
Plymouth, Weston Mill Cemetery Entrance
Plymouth, Weston Mill Cemetery Lodge
Plymouth, Ferndale Road opp. 20 Vermont Gardens
Plymouth, 40 Bridwell Road
Plymouth, St Philip's Church
Plymouth, 183 Bridwell Road
Plymouth, 117 Bridwell Road
Plymouth, 6 Eliot Street
Plymouth, 41 Eliot Street
Plymouth, 4 York Road
Plymouth, 440 Wolseley Road
Plymouth, 25 Harbour Avenue
Plymouth, 17 Rodney Street
Plymouth, Carlton Terrace Railway Bridge
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Bench Mark Database
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Explanation of Types
Cut Bench Mark
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt