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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


Abingdon, 37 West St Helen Street
Alnmouth, Marden House
Alnwick, 22 Walkergate
Alnwick, Alnwick Castle
Alnwick, White Swan Hotel
Appleby, 6 Colby Lane
Appleby, Chapel Street
Appleby, Long Marton Road Bridge
Appleby, Low Cross
Appleby, Shaws Wiend
Appleby, St Lawrence's Church
Bagillt, Hall, High Street
Bagillt, Works Building, High Street
Barry, 12 Friar's Road
Barry, Ambulance Room
Barry, Friar's Point Café
Barry, Rear Access Lane
Beadnell, Benthall Farm
Beal, Holy Island Road
Beal, Lindisfarne Causeway, Bridge
Bentley, St Paul's Primary School
Berinsfield, Fane Drive
Bexhill-on-Sea, Channel View
Bexhill-on-Sea, Galley Hill
Birmingham, 1 Oxford Street
Birmingham, 104 Liverpool Street
Birmingham, 125 Digbeth
Birmingham, 174 Charles Henry Street
Birmingham, 196 Alcester Street
Birmingham, 221 Cheapside
Birmingham, 61 Moseley Street
Birmingham, Bradford Court
Birmingham, St Martin's Church
Birmingham, St Martins Circus
Bletchley Park, H Block
Bridgnorth, New Road Footbridge
Burcot, Abingdon Road
Caernarfon, 26 Cei Banc
Caernarfon, 4 Stryd Pedwar a Chwech
Castle Acre, 65 Bailey Street
Cemaes, 1 Bridge Street
Cemaes, Village Hall
Chester, City Road
Chester, Lead Works
Chipping Norton, Allotments
Chipping Norton, Distons Lane
Chipping Norton, The Red Lion
Chipping Norton, Town Hall
Clifton Hampden, Furze Brake (East)
Clifton Hampden, Furze Brake (West)
Connah's Quay, Wall Opposite Playground
Crewe, Station Building
Cromer, Pier, Lifeboat Station, Tide Gauge Aux 1
Culham, 12 Tollgate Road
Culham, Sutton Bridge
Dudley, Hide, Skin & Fat Works
Dulas, Penrhyn Farm
Dulas, Tan Y Banc
Dyserth, Gwalia House
Eastleigh, Leigh Road PC
Edinburgh, 107 George Street
Edinburgh, 12 Gayfield Square
Edinburgh, 27 Chambers Street
Edinburgh, 40 Broughton Street
Edinburgh, Bedlam Theatre
Ewelme, Down Farm
Ewelme, Huntingland
Ewelme, Icknield Way
Ewelme, Warren Bottom
Greenfield, 8 Sycamore Terrace
Greenfield, 9 Greenfield Road
Greenfield, Maes-y-Dyffryn
Guildford, University of Surrey, Wates House
Hailes Church
Hailey, Letterbox
Hepburn, Roadside Wall
Holywell, Branch Line Gatepost
Hunstanton, 1 Clarence Road
Hunstanton, Rhianva Court
Kidderminster, 1 Comberton Road
Kidderminster, 1 Vicar Street
Kidderminster, Brintons Carpet Factory
Kidderminster, Clensmore Mills
Kidderminster, Stourvale Works (NE)
Kidderminster, Stourvale Works (SW)
Kidderminster, The Sling
King's Lynn, Mill Fleet
King's Lynn, Stonegate Street
Kinmel Bay, Golden Sands Holiday Park
Kinmel Bay, Water Works
Knighton Barn
Leicester, 1 Newarke Street
Leicester, Library & General News Room
Little Wittenham, Lock Keeper's House
Llanddulas, Erw Wen
Lockinge, Drain Surround
Loughborough University, Stewart Mason Building
Loughborough, 136 Derby Road
Loughborough, 21 Duke Street
Loughborough, 26 Knightthorpe Road
Loughborough, 290 Forest Road
Loughborough, 77 Meadow Lane
Loughborough, 87 Lower Cambridge Street
Loughborough, Biggin Street
Loughborough, Derby Road Works
Loughborough, Drill Hall
Loughborough, Tatmarsh
Loughton, Milestone, London 48
Lower Basildon, Railway Bridge
Malmesbury, St John's Bridge
Mapledurham, Old Post Office
Mortehoe, Hillcrest
Navestock Side, 1 Snakes Hill
Nettlebed, Windmill
Newbury, 32/33 Berkeley Road
Newbury, 78 Northbrook Street
Newbury, Bartholomew Street
Newbury, Blackboys Overbridge
Newbury, Engineering Works, Berkeley Road
Okehampton, Heathfield House
Old Colwyn, Beach Road Viaduct
Old Colwyn, Limehurst, Queens Road
Oreston, Lower Saltram
Oswestry, Beatrice Street
Oxford Stadium, Sandy Lane
Oxford, 25 Windmill Road
Oxford, 270 Marlborough Road
Oxford, Abingdon Road
Oxford, Abingdon Road Letterbox
Oxford, Dorset House
Oxford, Eastwyke Bridge
Oxford, Military Barracks, New Road
Oxford, Old Road Nurses Home
Oxford, Osney Bridge
Oxford, Railway Hotel
Oxford, Red Bridge
Oxford, Windmill Road Letterbox
Pevensey Bay, Richmond Road
Pitsford, Grange Lane Carpark
Plymouth, 1 Clare Place
Plymouth, 1 Lower Knolly's Terrace
Plymouth, 11 Wyndham Street West
Plymouth, 117 Bridwell Road
Plymouth, 12-14 Octagon Street
Plymouth, 17 Rodney Street
Plymouth, 1A Restormel Terrace
Plymouth, 38/39 Notte Street
Plymouth, 4 York Road
Plymouth, 40 Bridwell Road
Plymouth, 46 Beatrice Avenue
Plymouth, 6 Eliot Street
Plymouth, 63-64 Notte Street
Plymouth, All Saints' Church
Plymouth, Archer Place
Plymouth, Duke of Somerset
Plymouth, East Quay Dock Office
Plymouth, Harbour Avenue
Plymouth, Hastings Terrace
Plymouth, Hawkers Avenue
Plymouth, Lockyers Quay
Plymouth, Millbay Docks
Plymouth, Millbay Station
Plymouth, Notre Dame Convent High School
Plymouth, Oxford Street Primary School
Plymouth, Richmond Walk, Mayflower Marina
Plymouth, Rock Cottage
Plymouth, St Barnabas Church
Plymouth, St Philip's Church
Plymouth, Sutton Road / Marrowbone Slip
Plymouth, Weston Mill Cemetery Entrance
Poole, 5 The Quay
Portsmouth, 24 Butcher Street
Portsmouth, Historic Dockyard, Building 1/10
Portsmouth, Historic Dockyard, Storehouse 9
Prestatyn, 20 Marine Road
Preston Crowmarsh, A4074
Preston Crowmarsh, Monks Close
Reading, 127 Amity Road
Reading, 2 Woodstock Street
Reading, 31 Cumberland Road
Reading, Orts Road
Reading, Oxford Road
Rhos-on-Sea, 57 Everard Road
Rhos-on-Sea, Depot, Colwyn Avenue
Rhos-on-Sea, Ice Cream Parlour
Rhos-on-Sea, Marine Drive/Trillo Avenue Junction
Rhos-on-Sea, Tan-Y-Bryn/Rhos Road Junction
Rhos-on-Sea, Water Trough, West Promenade
Rhuddlan, Abergele Road Railway Bridge
Royal Leamington Spa, All Saints' Church
Salisbury, 138 Fisherton Street
Salisbury, 40 New Canal
Salisbury, Bishop's Walk, Cathedral School
Salisbury, Dews Road Factory
Sandwick, Voydale
Sandy, The Lodge
Sandycroft, Broughton Brook Bridge (SE)
Shotton, County Infants School (SW)
South Moreton, Sands Road Railway Bridge
Southampton, 19-21 High Street
Southampton, 66 High Street
Southampton, Alfred Marks Bureau
Southampton, Back of the Walls
Southampton, East Park
Southampton, Electricity Board Depot
Southampton, Orchard Place
Southampton, Pirelli Cable Works (N)
Southampton, Pirelli Cable Works (S)
Southampton, The Sun Hotel
Southwark, The Old Vic Theatre
St Neots, 32 Huntington Street
St Neots, Eaton Socon Pumping Station
St Neots, Eynesbury Pumping Station
St Neots, Howitt's Lane
Streatley, Wantage Road
Sutton Courtenay, Gatehouse
Swindon, St Mark's Churchyard
Ullesthorpe, The Swan Inn
Wallingford, 30 St Mary's Street
Wallingford, 91 High Street
Wallingford, Croft Road
Wallingford, St George's House
Wallingford, St Mary's Hospital
Wallingford, Station Road
Wallingford, Thames Path
Wallingford, Thames Path
Warkworth, 47 Castle Street
Warkworth, Masons Arms
Warwick, 15 Old Square
Warwick, 18 St Nicholas Church Street
Warwick, 21 High Street
Warwick, 37 High Street
Warwick, 7 Smith Street
Warwick, St Nicholas Park
Warwick, Tink-a-Tank
Warwick, Wharf Street
West Hendred, Milestone, Wantage 3
Westminster, Hilton London Paddington
Westminster, Kensington Gardens, Coalbrookdale Gate
Westminster, Kensington Gardens, Water Pump
Westminster, West Carriage Drive
Westray, B9067
Wherwell, The White Lion (SE)
Whitehorse Hill
Wolverley, Wolverley Bridge
York, 50 Goodramgate
3 - Mapledurham Lock
4 - Pangbourne, Whitchurch Bridge
7 - Cleeve Mill
23 - Little Wittenham
28 - Abingdon, Burford Bridge
29 - Abingdon, Ock Bridge
76 - Caversham Hotel
2763 - Knockin, Bridge
2764 - Pentre-clem
2942 - Southampton, Empress Dock, Engine House
G2525 - Parkway Water Tower
G3637 - Crowmarsh Gifford, 7 Benson Lane
G3638 - Wallingford Water Works
G4044 - Cholsey Hill, Pumping Station
G4951 - Penrhos, Bridge Lodge
L14 - Wimbledon, Somerset Road
S0315 - Rhuddlan, Phoenix Lodge
S0807 - Faringdon, Coxwell Road
S0949 - Mountnessing
S0951 - Brentwood, Ongar Road
S5553 - Sutton Wick
S6270 - Shotton, St Ethelwold's Primary School
S7545 - Beaumaris, Grammar School
11807 - Portsmouth, Cross Street


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush Bracket(188)
Projecting Bracket(6)
OSBM Bolt(10)
Cut Bench Mark(1285)
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt(73)
Fundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation Pillar(93)
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