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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


December 2013
Cut Bench MarkHeart of the Shires Shopping Village
November 2013
Flush BracketS6434 - Witney, 1 High Street
Cut Bench MarkHithercroft, Bradford's Brook Bridge
Cut Bench MarkDidcot, Fulscot Bridge
October 2013
Cut Bench MarkDidcot, Foxhall Bridge
Cut Bench MarkDidcot, West Curve Bridge
September 2013
RivetRoyal Leamington Spa, 168 Parade
Cut Bench MarkRoyal Leamington Spa, The Warwick Arms
Cut Bench MarkRoyal Leamington Spa, Town Hall
Cut Bench MarkRoyal Leamington Spa, Victoria Bridge
DestroyedRoyal Leamington Spa, All Saints' Church
Cut Bench MarkRoyal Leamington Spa, Bath Street railway bridge
Cut Bench MarkRoyal Leamington Spa, High Street Railway Bridge
Flush Bracket529 - Royal Leamington Spa, Clemens Street
Cut Bench MarkRoyal Leamington Spa, Gas Bridge
Cut Bench MarkWarwick, Avon Aqueduct
Cut Bench MarkWarwick, Jephson's Farm Bridge
Cut Bench MarkWarwick, Railway Aqueduct
Cut Bench MarkWarwick, Leam Bridge
RivetBerinsfield, Culvert NE Side A4074
Cut Bench MarkNorth Moreton, All Saints' Church
Cut Bench MarkWantage, 12 Newbury Street
Cut Bench MarkMaidensgrove, Pages Bottom
Cut Bench MarkMaidensgrove, Pages Farm
Cut Bench MarkNuffield, Huntercombe End Farm
August 2013
Cut Bench MarkOxford, 13 Iffley Turn
Flush BracketG2377 - Shepshed, Baptist Church
Cut Bench MarkPilton, Summers Hill Lane
DestroyedWallingford, 30 St Mary's Street
Cut Bench MarkCulham, Thame Lane Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, St James' Church
Cut Bench MarkBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Church House
Cut Bench MarkBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Bell Cottage
DestroyedClifton Hampden, Furze Brake (East)
DestroyedClifton Hampden, Furze Brake (West)
UnknownBerinsfield, A4074
UnknownWarborough, Court Farm
UnknownWarborough, Thame Road
UnknownWarborough, Upper Farm
Cut Bench MarkShillingford, 2a Warborough Road
Cut Bench MarkBenson, Hale Farm
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWarborough, St Laurence's Church
Cut Bench MarkDorchester-on-Thames, Wittenham Lane
Cut Bench MarkBurcot, 1 School Cottages
Cut Bench MarkDorchester-on-Thames, 67 High Street
RivetShillingford Bridge, North End
Cut Bench MarkShillingford Bridge, East Parapet
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, Rush Court
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, Shillingford Road
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, Castle Street Pump House
Flush Bracket11327 - Wantage, Council Offices
Cut Bench MarkLong Wittenham, Little Wittenham Road
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, St Peter's Church
Triangulation PillarS7157 - Broom Farm
Flush BracketS8393 - Dimmock's Cote Bridge
Fundamental BenchmarkWicken FBM
Cut Bench MarkBushmead, Home Farm
UnknownSt Neots, 39 King's Road
Cut Bench MarkSt Neots, 55 Avenue Road
DestroyedSt Neots, 32 Huntington Street
Cut Bench MarkEverton, Everton Crossing
Triangulation PillarS5952 - Sutton
Cut Bench MarkHinxworth, 8 Bean Cottages
Cut Bench MarkEdworth, Topler's Hill Water Tower
Cut Bench MarkBiggleswade, Furzenhall Road
Cut Bench MarkEverton, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench MarkEverton, Methodist Church
Cut Bench MarkEly, 17 Silver Street
Cut Bench MarkEly, King's School
Cut Bench MarkEly, The Gallery
UnknownEly, Courthouse
Cut Bench MarkEly, The Lamb Inn
Cut Bench MarkEly, 39 Market Street
UnknownEly, 15 Market Place
Cut Bench MarkEly, High Street
Cut Bench MarkEly, The Old Sacristy
UnknownEly, Wall Northeast of Cathedral
Cut Bench MarkEly, Wall South of Cathedral
Cut Bench Mark with BoltEly, Holy Trinity Cathedral
Cut Bench MarkEly, 4 Church Lane
Cut Bench MarkEly, 54 Silver Street
OSBM BoltGalley Hill
DestroyedSandy, The Lodge
Cut Bench MarkHoneydon, Lower Honeydon Farm
Cut Bench MarkLittle Staughton, All Saints' Church
Cut Bench MarkKimbolton, Kimbolton Castle
Cut Bench MarkKimbolton, St Andrew's Church
Cut Bench MarkStonely, Main Road
Cut Bench MarkDillington, Corner Farm
Cut Bench MarkGrafham, All Saints' Church
Cut Bench MarkHail Weston, St Nicholas's Church
July 2013
DestroyedSt Neots, Eaton Socon Pumping Station
Cut Bench MarkEaton Socon, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench MarkSt Neots, Rivermill Tavern
RivetSt Neots, Eaton Socon Lock
DestroyedSt Neots, Eynesbury Pumping Station
Cut Bench MarkSt Neots, 27 New Street
Cut Bench MarkSt Neots, 17 Berkley Street
Cut Bench MarkEynesbury, St Mary's Church
DestroyedSt Neots, Howitt's Lane
Cut Bench MarkSt Neots, 6 Eynesbury Green
Cut Bench MarkSt Neots, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench MarkDenchworth, South Denchworth Farm
Cut Bench MarkTubney, Fox Cottage
Cut Bench MarkKennington, Sandford Lane
Cut Bench MarkCheckendon, Lovegrove's Farm
DestroyedOxford, Military Barracks, New Road
Cut Bench MarkLyford, Flapp's Barn
Cut Bench MarkAbingdon, St Helen's Church
May 2013
Cut Bench MarkGreat Campstone, Campstone Cottages
Flush BracketG3924 - Chepstow Racecourse, Lions Lodge
Cut Bench MarkWeston, Cubbage Cottage
Cut Bench MarkLower Harpton, Lower Harpton Farm
Cut Bench MarkGreat Wollaston, St John the Baptist Church
Cut Bench MarkPonthen, Bontain Farm
April 2013
Cut Bench Mark with BoltBrecon Cathedral
Flush Bracket915 - Brecon, St. Mary's Church
February 2013
Flush BracketS9950 - Sinah Farm
Flush Bracket2461 - Southbourne, St John the Evangelist Church
January 2013
Triangulation PillarS1693 - Fullerton


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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