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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


December 2014
Abingdon, Bath Street Boundary Stone
Reading, Abbey Gateway
Reading, Forbury Gardens
November 2014
Southampton, Pirelli Cable Works (N)
Southampton, Pirelli Cable Works (S)
Southampton, 16 Portland Terrace
Southampton, St Michael's Church
Southampton, 48 Bugle Street
Southampton, St John's School
Southampton, 15 Bugle Street
Southampton, West Gate
Southampton, Cement Terrace
Southampton, Town Wall
Southampton, Forty Steps
Southampton, 104A East Street
Southampton, Electricity Board Depot
Southampton, Back of the Walls
Southampton, South Western House
2941 - Southampton, Board of Trade
Southampton, South Gate
2970 - Southampton, Castle
Southampton, Tower House
2971 - Southampton, Town Quay
Southampton, The Sun Hotel
Southampton, 66 High Street
Southampton, Merchant Navy Memorial
Southampton, 19-21 High Street
Southampton, Alfred Marks Bureau
Southampton, Norwich Union House
Southampton, 127 Above Bar Street
Southampton, 8 Carlton Crescent
Southampton, 5 Rockstone Place
Southampton, 15 Rockstone Place
Southampton FBM
Southampton, 2 Brunswick Place
Southampton, 16 Brunswick Place
Southampton, East Park
2942 - Southampton, Empress Dock, Engine House
Southampton, Orchard Place
Westminster, Lower Grosvenor Place
Westminster, Lower Grosvenor Place (W)
Westminster, 19-21 Grosvenor Gardens
Westminster, Grosvenor Gardens
Faversham, Railway Station
Faversham, Methodist Church
Faversham, 66 Preston Street
Faversham, Borough Council Offices
Faversham, The Swan Inn
Faversham, 1 Abbey Street
S0707 - Faversham, St Mary of Charity Church
Faversham, St Mary Court
Faversham, Police Station
Faversham, Baptist Church
Faversham, 50 St Mary's Road
Faversham, 124 St Mary's Road
Faversham, The Water Tower
Faversham, Station Road
S0541 - St Paul's Cathedral
London, 73 Pancras Road
October 2014
Cardiff, Pierhead Building
Cardiff, National Assembly Quay
St Fagans Museum, Melin Wlân Esgair-moel
St Fagans Museum, Melin Bompren
Barry, Harbour Road Bridge
Barry, Rear Access Lane
Barry, 12 Friar's Road
Barry, Friar's Point House
Barry, Friar's Point Café
Barry, Paget Road
Barry, Ambulance Room
Barry, Promenade Sea Wall
Barry, Plymouth Road Railway Bridge
S9111 - Penarth, Schooner Inn
Penarth, Cliff Hill
Penarth, Ashdene Manor
Pentwyn, Coed-y-Gores
Cardiff, Adam Street Railway Bridge
Cardiff, Duke of Wellington
Cardiff, The Potted Pig
Cardiff, Castle Clock Tower
S9109 - Cardiff, Duke Stret
Holt, Hall's Farm
G3657 - Lechlade-on-Thames, Downington
G3656 - Lechlade-on-Thames, Market Place
September 2014
Woolstone, Woolstone Farm
Moira, Ashby Road Railway Bridge
Rockingham, Sondes Arms
10167 - Twyford, Village Hall
Moira, Bath Lane Railway Bridge
Warwick, Tollgate Cottage
Warwick, Bridge End Wall
Warwick, 107 Bridge End
Warwick, 52 Bridge End
Warwick, 32 Bridge End
526 - Warwick, Castle Bridge
Warwick, Banbury Road
Warwick, 1 St Nicholas Park
Warwick, St Nicholas Park
Warwick, 24 Mill Street
Warwick, 18 St Nicholas Church Street
Warwick, Tink-a-Tank
608 - Warwick, Police Station
Warwick, Castle Archway
Warwick, 15 Old Square
Warwick, 6 New Street
Warwick, 72 Market Place
Warwick, 37 High Street
Warwick, 21 High Street
Warwick, St. Mary's Church
Warwick, St Mary's Church Wall
Warwick, Lord Leycester Hotel
Warwick, 7 Smith Street
Warwick, 27 Smith Street
Warwick, Castle Limes Hotel
Warwick, 39 Coten End
Warwick, 40 Coten End
Warwick, 1 Emscote Road
Warwick, Knowle Villa, Broad Street
Warwick, Wharf Street Railway Bridge
Warwick, Wharf Street
August 2014
Culham, 12 Tollgate Road
Rhôs Lligwy, Gatepost
S7305 - Parys Mountain
S7324 - Mynydd Bodafon
Mynydd Bodafon, Wall Junction
S7548 - Llanallgo, School
S1633 - Holyhead
South Stack, Upper Steps
South Stack, Middle Steps
South Stack, Lower Steps
Llanbadrig, St Patrick's Cottage
Cemaes, Castellor Hotel
Cemaes, St Patrick's Church
Cemaes, 1 Bridge Street
Cemaes, Village Hall
S7552 - Cemaes Bay, Harbour View
Caernarfon, 26 Cei Banc
Caernarfon, Doc Fictoria, Pier Entrance
Caernarfon, Caernarfon Marina
Caernarfon, Victoria Dock
Caernarfon, St Mary's Church
Caernarfon, Y Promenad, Tower
Caernarfon, Y Promenad, Arch
Caernarfon, 4 Stryd Pedwar a Chwech
Caernarfon, 20 Stryd Fawr
Caernarfon, Pendist
Caernarfon, Porth Mawr
Caernarfon, Pool Lane
G2754 - Caernarfon, Post Office
Caernarfon, Castell Caernarfon, Twr Du
Dulas, Ty'n-y-pwll
Dulas, Tan Y Banc
Dulas, Penrhyn Farm
Conwy, Sychnant Pass Road
Penrhos, Railway Bridge
G4951 - Penrhos, Bridge Lodge
S7547 - Benllech, Congregational Chapel
Beaumaris, 51 Castle Street
S7545 - Beaumaris, Grammar School
Beaumaris, Park Wall Post
Maenaddwyn, Gatepost
Llandyfrydog, St Tyfrydog's Church
Llandyfrydog, Gatepost
Llandyfrydog, Pont Felin-esgob
Llandyfrydog, Melin Esgob
Mynydd Bodafon, Capel Caersalem
G4967 - Brynrefail
Rhôs Lligwy, Pont-y-felin
Traeth Lligwy, Gatepost
July 2014
Crewe, Station Building
Crewe, Nantwich Road Railway Bridge
Crewe, 4 Gresty Road
Crewe, South Street News
Crewe, 38 Bedford Street
Crewe, 41 Laura Street
Crewe, Unipart Rail
Crewe, Yew Tree Farm
Crewe, Gresty Road Motors
Crewe, YMCA Foyer
Eastleigh, Comrade's Institute and Club
Eastleigh, Leigh Road PC
Eastleigh, The Home Tavern
Vernham Street, Fowlers Farm
Streatley, Wantage Road
North Stoke, Cook Lane
North Stoke, St Mary's Church
North Stoke, The Street Bridge
Carmel College, Water's Edge
G1791 - Carmel College Lodge
Crowmarsh Gifford, Carmel College Entrance
June 2014
S6431 - Filkins, The Lamb Inn
Burford, 124 High Street
Hampton Hill, Hampton Hill New Gate
Stoke Row, Busgrove Lane
Stoke Row, St John's Church
Checkendon, Black Horse PH
Ipsden, Scot's Common
Ipsden, Three Corner Common
Ipsden, Garsons Farm
Ipsden, Garsons Hill
Ipsden, Garsons Lane
Checkendon, Wheeler's Farm
G3009 - Llangollen, Smithfield Hotel
Woodside, The Crispin PH
Kingston upon Thames, 43 High Street
S0960 - Kingston upon Thames, All Saints' Church
S0959 - Kingston upon Thames, Town Hall
Hampton, Lower Sunbury Road
Knowl Hill, Seven Stars PH
May 2014
Leicester, Royal Infirmary
Leicester, Holy Trinity Church
Leicester, County Gaol
Swindon, Rodbourne Road Railway Bridge
Swindon, St Mark's Churchyard
Swindon, St Mark's Church
Swindon, Church Place Wall
Swindon, Rodbourne Road
G2525 - Parkway Water Tower
G4044 - Cholsey Hill, Pumping Station
Buckland FBM
Cholsey, The Old School
Cholsey, Church Road Wall
Broad Hinton, Primary School
Wootton Rivers, Railway Bridge
G3642 - Long Wittenham, The Vine
Milton Park Trading Estate
G4693 - Whitefield Farm
G2904 - Brockenhurst, St. Saviour's Church
Frogham, Crossroads Cottage
Oxford, Balliol College (E)
Oxford, Bear Lane
Oxford, County Hall
East Hagbourne, St Andrew's Church
East Hagbourne, 24A Main Road
Blewbury, Wantage 9 Milestone
West Hagbourne, Foxglove Lane
Burcot, Abingdon Road
Berinsfield, Abingdon Road
April 2014
Blewbury, Blewburton Barns
Aston Upthorpe, Blewburton Hall
Aston Upthorpe, All Saints' Church
Aston Tirrold, The Chequers
Aston Tirrold, Chalk Hill Wall
Aston Tirrold, St Michael's Church
Lullington, Lullington Court
Herstmonceux, All Saints' Church
S3986 - Wilmington Hill
11492 - Transit Meridian
Hastings, Bexhill Road Railway Bridge
Winchelsea, Rectory Lane/High Street
S6244 - Hill Farm Winchelsea
Eastbourne, Holy Trinity Church
Eastbourne, 4 Devonshire Place
March 2014
Oxford, Merton Grove
February 2014
Oxford, Christ Church College SW Buttress
January 2014
Portsmouth, Historic Dockyard, Victory Gate


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush Bracket(188)
Projecting Bracket(6)
OSBM Bolt(10)
Cut Bench Mark(1285)
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt(73)
Fundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation Pillar(93)
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