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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


PivotAppleby, Belgravia
PivotAppleby, Jubilee Bridge
PivotAppleby, King George's Field
PivotAppleby, Kingdom Hall
PivotBarrowford, Pendle Water Wall
PivotBexhill-on-Sea, De La Warr Parade (4)
PivotChipping Norton, 58 West Street
PivotClyro, Croesfeilliog
PivotCross of Greet
PivotCulham, Sutton Bridge
PivotDrayton, Steventon Road BS
PivotEastbourne, Marine Parade
PivotEaton Hastings, St Michael's Church
PivotEdinburgh, 1 Minto Street
PivotEdinburgh, 1 Randolph Place
PivotEdinburgh, 10/11 Bright's Crescent
PivotEdinburgh, 125 George Street
PivotEdinburgh, 13-15 Manor Place
PivotEdinburgh, 16 Spittal Street
PivotEdinburgh, 2 Stafford Street
PivotEdinburgh, 20 Magdala Crescent
PivotEdinburgh, 21 Leith Street
PivotEdinburgh, 22 Douglas Crescent
PivotEdinburgh, 36/38 Craigmillar Park
PivotEdinburgh, 37-39 St Andrew Square
PivotEdinburgh, 62 Palmerston Place
PivotEdinburgh, 7 Craigmillar Park
PivotEdinburgh, 8 Magdala Crescent
PivotEdinburgh, 9 Douglas Crescent
PivotEdinburgh, Broughton Place Church
PivotEdinburgh, Calton Hill Blocked Entrance
PivotEdinburgh, Calton Hill Path Junction
PivotEdinburgh, Calton Hill Steps
PivotEdinburgh, Edinburgh Castle, New Barracks
PivotEdinburgh, Edinburgh Castle, Portcullis Gate
PivotEdinburgh, Greenside Church
PivotEdinburgh, Johnston Terrace / Upper Bow
PivotEdinburgh, Market Street
PivotEdinburgh, North Bank Street
PivotEdinburgh, Princes Street opp. 60 Princes Street
PivotEdinburgh, Princes Street opp. Castle Street
PivotEdinburgh, Princes Street opp. Frederick Street
PivotEdinburgh, Princes Street opp. Halifax Bank
PivotEdinburgh, Princes Street opp. Tram Stop
PivotEdinburgh, Queen Street / Queen Street Gardens East
PivotEdinburgh, Queen Street / Queen Street Gardens West
PivotEdinburgh, Queen Street / Wemyss Place
PivotEdinburgh, Queen Street Gardens opp. #50 Queen Street
PivotEdinburgh, Regent Road / Hume Walk
PivotEdinburgh, Royal Scottish Academy
PivotEdinburgh, Shandwick Place
PivotEdinburgh, The Mound
PivotEdinburgh, The Mound / Mound Place
PivotEdinburgh, West Princes Street Gardens
PivotEmbleton, Dunstanburgh Castle Golf Course
PivotGreat Missenden, St Peter & St Paul's Church
PivotHampton Court, Barge Walk
PivotHepburn, Roadside Rock
PivotNewbury, Newtown Road Cemetery Lodge
PivotOswestry Golf Club
PivotOxford, 56 St Giles
PivotOxford, Christchurch Meadow Sluice
PivotPlymouth, 21 Oxford Place
PivotStenness, Housequoy
PivotWallingford, Milestone, Oxford 13
PivotWestminster, Hyde Park, The Serpentine
PivotWestminster, Kensington Gardens, The Broad Walk BS
PivotWestminster, Westbourne Terrace
PivotWestray, Cedarleigh
PivotWestray, Gallo Hill
PivotWestray, Knucker Hill
PivotWestray, Lengemire
PivotWestray, West Kirbest


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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