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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


2009 - Cop Court
Aldbourne, The Square
Alnmouth, Concrete Wall
Alnmouth, The Wynd
Alnwick, Police Station
Alnwick, The Duke's Middle School
Alwinton, Roadside Stone
Appleby, The Ings
Appleford, Birch Cottage
Appleford, Old Post Office
Ardington, Milestone, Wantage 2
Bagillt, Gadlys Lane
Bagillt, Gadlys Lane Farm
Bagillt, Graig
Bagillt, Wye Bank
Barry, Friar's Point House
Barry, Harbour Road Bridge
Battle, Baptist Church
Beadnell, Beadnell Links
Beal, Lindisfarne Causeway Car Park
Berinsfield, 150 Fane Drive
Berinsfield, A4074
Bexhill-on-Sea, Glyne Gap
Bexhill-on-Sea, The Chintings, Upper Sea Road
Bletchley Park, G Block
Blewbury, Blewburton Barns
Builth Wells, Groe Street
Caernarfon, Pendist
Castle Acre, Jubilee Bridge
Checkendon, Black Horse PH
Chipping Norton, Baptist Church
Chipping Norton, Bliss Lodge
Chipping Norton, Burford Road Substation
Chipping Norton, Penhurst Orphanage
Cholsey, Fair Mile Hospital
Clifton Hampden Bridge
Craster, 22 Heugh Wynd
Craster, Roadside Wall
Crewe, Yew Tree Farm
Cromer, Holt Road
Cromer, West Parade
Culham, Waggon and Horses (NW)
Culham, Waggon and Horses (SW)
Cwmbelan, Jubilee Terrace
Didcot, Milestone, Wantage 7
Duxford, Duxford Cottage
Dyserth, Mount House
Dyserth, Old Bakery
Edinburgh, 10 Blenheim Place
Edinburgh, 12 Downie Terrace
Edinburgh, Chambers Street
Edinburgh, Regent Road opp. Regent Terrace
Edinburgh, The Cottage, West Princes Street Gardens
Ely, 15 Market Place
Ely, Courthouse
Ely, Wall Northeast of Cathedral
Embleton, Dunstanstead Links
Ewelme, High Street
Faversham, 1 Abbey Street
Faversham, Police Station
Faversham, St Mary Court
Faversham, Station Road
Faversham, The Water Tower
Ferring, Ilex Way
Foxton, Foxton Hall Cottages
Foxton, Foxton Road
Foxton, Gallow Field Road
Goring-by-Sea, 177 Goring Road
Goring-by-Sea, 203 Goring Road
Great Shefford, Manor Farm
Guildford, University of Surrey, Library
Gumley, Foxton Road
Hailey, Hill Farm
Hay-on-Wye, Heol Y Dwr
Hay-on-Wye, St Mary's Road
Hepburn, Roadside Wall
Hepburn, Roadside Wall
Herstmonceux, Observatory
Hinton Waldrist, St Margaret's Church
Holy Island, Crooked Loaning
Holywell, Upper Cotton Mill
Hunstanton, Golden Lion Hotel
Hurst Castle, Transfer Bolt
Ipsden, Garsons Hill
Ipsden, Garsons Lane
Ipsden, Hailey House
Ipsden, Three Corner Common
Keyhaven, Keyhaven Sluice
Keyworth, Barnfield Farm
Kidderminster, Staffs & Worcs Canal
Kinmel Bay, Sandy Cove Club
Knockin, B4398
Lambeth, Station Approach Road
Little Wittenham, Christmas Cottage
Llanddulas, Abergele Road
Llandyfrydog, Pont Felin-esgob
Llanybydder, Teifi Bridge
Long Wittenham, Bow Bridge
Longcot, City Bridge
Longcot, Cleveland Farm
Longcot, Longcot House
Loughborough University, Paula Radcliffe Athletics Pavilion
Loughborough, 24 Nottingham Road
Loughborough, 262 Forest Road
Loughborough, Baptist Church
Loughton, Olde Bell Lane
Low Newton-by-the-Sea, Newbiggin
Middle Barton, The Thatched House
Milton, Coopers Corner
Newbury, 51 Bartholomew Street
Norman's Bay
North Moreton, White Lees
Okehampton, Parklands Road
Okehampton, St Boniface Church
Okehampton, Tors Road
Okehampton, Tors Road BS
Old Colwyn, Promenade
Oreston, 139 Plymstock Road
Oswestry, 25 Beatrice Street
Oswestry, Christ Church
Oswestry, Horse Market
Oxford, 109 Windmill Road
Oxford, 275 Abingdon Road
Oxford, 39 New High Street
Oxford, Castle Mill Stream Weir
Oxford, Hinksey Lake
Oxford, Merton Grove
Oxford, Moor Ditch Bridge
Oxford, Old High Street
Pitsford, Grange Lane
Plymouth, 12 Dale Road
Plymouth, 440 Wolseley Road
Plymouth, 48 North Road East
Plymouth, Arnolds Point
Plymouth, Boons Place
Plymouth, Embankment Road, Pylon
Plymouth, Hoe Park, Outbuilding
Plymouth, Lanhydrock Road Railway Bridge
Plymouth, Lucas Terrace Railway Bridge
Plymouth, Opposite 23 Central Park Avenue
Plymouth, Pennycomequick
Poole, 57 Lagland Street
Radley, Old Forge
Reading, Liverpool Road
Rhos-on-Sea, 85 Brompton Avenue
Rhos-on-Sea, Marine Drive opp. Colwyn Avenue
Rhos-on-Sea, Penrhyn Court
Salisbury, Old Sarum
Sandycroft, 56 Chester Road
Sandycroft, 84 Phoenix Street
Shepshed, 44 The Meadows
Shotton, Bridge Street Footbridge
Shotton, Deeside Enterprise Park
Shotton, Hawarden Bridge
Shrivenham, Bowles's Bridge
Southampton, 15 Rockstone Place
Southampton, 8 Carlton Crescent
Southampton, Norwich Union House
St Neots, 39 King's Road
Stoke Row, Busgrove Lane
Stratford-sub-Castle, Stratford Bridge
Sutton Courtenay, B4016
Sutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane
Sutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane (N)
Sutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane (S)
Talacre, Station Road Gatepost
Uffington Down
Uffington, 10 Faringdon Road
Uffington, 24 Faringdon Road
Warborough, Court Farm
Warborough, Thame Road
Warborough, Upper Farm
Warwick, 1 Castle Hill House
Warwick, 1 Emscote Road
Warwick, 107 Bridge End
Warwick, 3 Stratford Road
Warwick, Coventry Road Moorings
West Lavington Down, Water Tank
Westminster, 19-21 Grosvenor Gardens
Westminster, Kensington Gardens, Seat Plinth
Westminster, Kensington Gardens, The Fountains
Westminster, Kensington Gardens, The Long Water
Westminster, Serpentine Bridge
Willenhall, Bentley Wharf Bridge
Winchcombe, Briar Cottage, Castle Street
Winchcombe, Youth Centre
Wolvercote, Godstow Bridge
York, Dean's Park (Deep)
York, The Royal York Hotel
York, The Yorkshire Museum
York, York Minster (Deep)
G2964 - Castle Acre, 32 Town Lane
G3295 - Knockin Heath
S0720 - Plymouth, Lambhay Hill
S6276 - Mostyn, Railway Station
S8627 - Brook Street, Mascalls Lane
S6435 - Holywell, County Primary School


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush Bracket(188)
Projecting Bracket(6)
OSBM Bolt(10)
Cut Bench Mark(1285)
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt(73)
Fundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation Pillar(93)
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