© John Talbot. No images may be copied, downloaded or reproduced without prior written permission.

Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


Unknown2009 - Cop Court
UnknownAldbourne, The Square
UnknownAlnmouth, Concrete Wall
UnknownAlnmouth, The Wynd
UnknownAlnwick, Police Station
UnknownAlnwick, The Duke's Middle School
UnknownAlwinton, Roadside Stone
UnknownAppleby, The Ings
UnknownAppleford, Birch Cottage
UnknownAppleford, Old Post Office
UnknownArdington, Milestone, Wantage 2
UnknownAylsham, Garth Cottage, Cromer Road
UnknownBagillt, Gadlys Lane
UnknownBagillt, Gadlys Lane Farm
UnknownBagillt, Graig
UnknownBagillt, Wye Bank
UnknownBangor, 1 Garfield Terrace, Garth Road
UnknownBangor, Garth Transfer Bolt
UnknownBangor, Glanrafon Hill / Lower Penrallt Road
UnknownBangor, Glanrafon Hill opp. 1 Fron Dirion Terrace
UnknownBarry, Friar's Point House
UnknownBarry, Harbour Road Bridge
UnknownBath, Royal Avenue
UnknownBath, Royal Avenue
UnknownBath, St Michael's Church
UnknownBattle, Baptist Church
UnknownBeadnell, Beadnell Links
UnknownBeal, Lindisfarne Causeway Car Park
UnknownBere Regis, Old Townsend Farmhouse
UnknownBerinsfield, 150 Fane Drive
UnknownBerinsfield, A4074
UnknownBexhill-on-Sea, Glyne Gap
UnknownBexhill-on-Sea, The Chintings, Upper Sea Road
UnknownBlack Down, Hardy Coppice
UnknownBletchley Park, G Block
UnknownBlewbury, 1 Pound Cottage
UnknownBlewbury, Blewburton Barns
UnknownBognor Regis, 11 Southdown Road
UnknownBognor Regis, 29 Linden Road
UnknownBognor Regis, 3 Aldwick Road
UnknownBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Spring Cottage
UnknownBristol, Anchor Road
UnknownBristol, Bordeaux Quay
UnknownBroadway, The Fish Inn
UnknownBuilth Wells, Groe Street
UnknownCaernarfon, Pendist
UnknownCampsea Ashe, Wickham Market Railway Station
UnknownCardiff, Rhiwbina Railway Station
UnknownCastle Acre, Jubilee Bridge
UnknownCheckendon, Black Horse PH
UnknownChilsworthy, Meadow Lane Junction
UnknownChipping Norton, Baptist Church
UnknownChipping Norton, Bliss Lodge
UnknownChipping Norton, Burford Road Substation
UnknownChipping Norton, Penhurst Orphanage
UnknownCholsey, Fair Mile Hospital
UnknownChristchurch, 10 Quay Road
UnknownCleethorpes, 19 Bradford Avenue
UnknownCleethorpes, 21 Cromwell Road
UnknownCleethorpes, 31 Signhills Avenue
UnknownCleethorpes, North Promenade
UnknownCleethorpes, Railway Station
UnknownClifton Hampden Bridge
UnknownClitheroe, Edisford Road Substation
UnknownClitheroe, Roefield Cottage
UnknownCockenzie, 1 East Lorimer Place
UnknownCompton, Green Hams Lane
UnknownCraster, 22 Heugh Wynd
UnknownCraster, Roadside Wall
UnknownCrewe, 82 Mill Street
UnknownCrewe, Yew Tree Farm
UnknownCromer, Holt Road
UnknownCromer, West Parade
UnknownCulham, Waggon and Horses (NW)
UnknownCulham, Waggon and Horses (SW)
UnknownCumnor, St Michael's Church
UnknownCwmbelan, Jubilee Terrace
UnknownDarsham, Mill Hill Farm
UnknownDidcot, Milestone, Wantage 7
UnknownDorchester, 24 Victoria Road
UnknownDorchester, 42 Cornwall Road
UnknownDover Castle, Godwin Road Car Park
UnknownDunwich, Beach Road
UnknownDunwich, Beehive Cottage
UnknownDuxford, Duxford Cottage
UnknownDyserth, Mount House
UnknownDyserth, Old Bakery
UnknownEast Ilsley, Churn Road
UnknownEast Ilsley, Halfpenny Catch Lane
UnknownEast Lockinge, Lockinge Manor
UnknownEdinburgh, 10 Blenheim Place
UnknownEdinburgh, 12 Downie Terrace
UnknownEdinburgh, 2 Chester Street
UnknownEdinburgh, 45 Melville Street
UnknownEdinburgh, Bedlam Theatre
UnknownEdinburgh, Calton Hill, City Observatory
UnknownEdinburgh, Chambers Street
UnknownEdinburgh, Edinburgh Castle, Argyle Battery
UnknownEdinburgh, Edinburgh Castle, Inner Barrier
UnknownEdinburgh, Greenside Row
UnknownEdinburgh, Lansdowne Crescent
UnknownEdinburgh, Regent Road opp. Regent Terrace
UnknownEly, 15 Market Place
UnknownEly, Courthouse
UnknownEly, Wall Northeast of Cathedral
UnknownEmbleton, Dunstanstead Links
UnknownEwelme, High Street
UnknownFarmoor, Pinkhill Weir
UnknownFarmoor, Shrike Meadow
UnknownFaversham, 1 Abbey Street
UnknownFaversham, Police Station
UnknownFaversham, St Mary Court
UnknownFaversham, Station Road
UnknownFaversham, The Water Tower
UnknownFelixstowe, 123 Undercliff Road West
UnknownFelixstowe, 14 Sea Road
UnknownFelixstowe, 3 Ranelagh Road
UnknownFelixstowe, 67 Undercliff Road West
UnknownFerring, Ilex Way
UnknownFlixton, The Buck Inn
UnknownFolkestone, East Cliff Shelter
UnknownFolkestone, Harbour Arm
UnknownFoxton, Foxton Hall Cottages
UnknownFoxton, Foxton Road
UnknownFoxton, Gallow Field Road
UnknownGloucester, 1 Llanthony Road
UnknownGloucester, Cedar House, Spa Road
UnknownGloucester, Llanthony Warehouse
UnknownGoring-by-Sea, 177 Goring Road
UnknownGoring-by-Sea, 203 Goring Road
UnknownGreat Shefford, Manor Farm
UnknownGuildford, University of Surrey, Library
UnknownGumley, Foxton Road
UnknownHailey, Hill Farm
UnknownHarwich, Outer Part of Town Eastward
UnknownHay-on-Wye, Heol Y Dwr
UnknownHay-on-Wye, St Mary's Road
UnknownHengistbury Head, PC Block No. 1
UnknownHengistbury Head, PC Block No. 5
UnknownHepburn, Roadside Wall
UnknownHepburn, Roadside Wall
UnknownHeptonstall, Clough Hole Bridge
UnknownHerstmonceux, Observatory
UnknownHeslington, Lord Deramore's Primary School
UnknownHinton Waldrist, St Margaret's Church
UnknownHoly Island, Crooked Loaning
UnknownHolywell, Upper Cotton Mill
UnknownHunstanton, Golden Lion Hotel
UnknownHurst Castle, Transfer Bolt
UnknownHythe, Royal Military Canal Footbridge
UnknownIpsden, Garsons Hill
UnknownIpsden, Garsons Lane
UnknownIpsden, Hailey House
UnknownIpsden, Three Corner Common
UnknownKeyhaven, Keyhaven Sluice
UnknownKeyworth, Barnfield Farm
UnknownKidderminster, Staffs & Worcs Canal
UnknownKinmel Bay, Sandy Cove Club
UnknownKnockin, B4398
UnknownLambeth, Station Approach Road
UnknownLamellion, Gatepost
UnknownLamellion, Lamellion Overbridge
UnknownLangore, Milestone, Launceston 2
UnknownLaunceston, Windmill Hill Terrace
UnknownLeyburn, 6 Manor Court
UnknownLittle Haseley, Standhill Lane
UnknownLittle Wittenham, Christmas Cottage
UnknownLlanddulas, Abergele Road
UnknownLlandyfrydog, Pont Felin-esgob
UnknownLlanybydder, Teifi Bridge
UnknownLockinge, Betterton Brook
UnknownLockinge, Betterton Road
UnknownLondon, 6 Southampton Row
UnknownLong Wittenham, Ash Barn House, High Street
UnknownLong Wittenham, Bow Bridge
UnknownLong Wittenham, Thames Path #1
UnknownLong Wittenham, Thames Path #2
UnknownLongcot, City Bridge
UnknownLongcot, Cleveland Farm
UnknownLongcot, Longcot House
UnknownLoughborough University, Paula Radcliffe Athletics Pavilion
UnknownLoughborough, 24 Nottingham Road
UnknownLoughborough, 262 Forest Road
UnknownLoughborough, Baptist Church
UnknownLoughton, Olde Bell Lane
UnknownLow Newton-by-the-Sea, Newbiggin
UnknownLowestoft, Esplanade opp. 37 Marine Parade
UnknownLowestoft, Esplanade opp. The Thatched House
UnknownLydford Junction, Railway Bridge
UnknownMeonstoke, Harvestgate Farm
UnknownMiddle Barton, The Thatched House
UnknownMilton, Coopers Corner
UnknownMinions, Gonamena Boulder
UnknownMusselburgh, Ravensheugh Road
UnknownNorman's Bay
UnknownNorth Moreton, White Lees
UnknownOkehampton, Parklands Road
UnknownOkehampton, St Boniface Church
UnknownOkehampton, Tors Road
UnknownOkehampton, Tors Road BS
UnknownOld Colwyn, Promenade
UnknownOreston, 139 Plymstock Road
UnknownOrford Ness, Bird Ringers' Hut
UnknownOrford Ness, Demolished Building
UnknownOrford Ness, Sea Wall
UnknownOrford, 18 Ferry Road
UnknownOrford, Orford Castle
UnknownOswestry, 25 Beatrice Street
UnknownOswestry, Christ Church
UnknownOswestry, Horse Market
UnknownOxford, 109 Windmill Road
UnknownOxford, 275 Abingdon Road
UnknownOxford, 39 New High Street
UnknownOxford, Castle Mill Stream Weir
UnknownOxford, Hinksey Lake
UnknownOxford, Merton Grove
UnknownOxford, Moor Ditch Bridge
UnknownOxford, Old High Street
UnknownOxford, Radcliffe Science Library
UnknownPenrhiwceiber, Railway Terrace
UnknownPitsford, Grange Lane
UnknownPlymouth, 12 Dale Road
UnknownPlymouth, 440 Wolseley Road
UnknownPlymouth, 48 North Road East
UnknownPlymouth, Arnolds Point
UnknownPlymouth, Boons Place
UnknownPlymouth, Embankment Road, Pylon
UnknownPlymouth, Hoe Park, Outbuilding
UnknownPlymouth, Lanhydrock Road Railway Bridge
UnknownPlymouth, Lucas Terrace Railway Bridge
UnknownPlymouth, Opposite 23 Central Park Avenue
UnknownPlymouth, Pennycomequick
UnknownPoole, 57 Lagland Street
UnknownPort Isaac Road Station, Railway Bridge
UnknownPortland, Boundary Stone #62
UnknownPortland, Old Hill Wall #3
UnknownPortland, Verne Hill Road / New Ground
UnknownPortland, Waycroft Quarries
UnknownPortsmouth, 60 High Street
UnknownPortsmouth, Junior Grammar School
UnknownPrestonpans, North Lodge, Prestongrange
UnknownRadley, Old Forge
UnknownReading, Liverpool Road
UnknownReading, Wokingham Road / Bulmershe Road
UnknownRhos-on-Sea, 85 Brompton Avenue
UnknownRhos-on-Sea, Marine Drive opp. Colwyn Avenue
UnknownRhos-on-Sea, Penrhyn Court
UnknownSalisbury, Old Sarum
UnknownSandycroft, 56 Chester Road
UnknownSandycroft, 84 Phoenix Street
UnknownScarborough, Castle Entrance Arch
UnknownScarborough, Castle Wall #2
UnknownScarborough, Royal Albert Drive
UnknownScarborough, St. Nicholas Street
UnknownScarborough, The Holms, Lower Steps
UnknownSheerness, 47 High Street
UnknownShepshed, 44 The Meadows
UnknownShirburn, Icknield Way, Post
UnknownShirburn, Icknield Way, Trough
UnknownShotton, Bridge Street Footbridge
UnknownShotton, Deeside Enterprise Park
UnknownShotton, Hawarden Bridge
UnknownShrivenham, Bowles's Bridge
UnknownSouth Caradon Mine
UnknownSouthampton, 15 Rockstone Place
UnknownSouthampton, 8 Carlton Crescent
UnknownSouthampton, Norwich Union House
UnknownSouthsea, 19 Highland Terrace
UnknownSouthsea, Esplanade #1
UnknownSouthsea, Esplanade #3
UnknownSouthsea, St Helens Parade
UnknownSouthwold, 9 North Parade
UnknownSouthwold, Methodist Church
UnknownSouthwold, Pier Pavilion
UnknownSt Neots, 39 King's Road
UnknownStoke Row, Busgrove Lane
UnknownStratford-sub-Castle, Stratford Bridge
UnknownSutton Courtenay, B4016
UnknownSutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane
UnknownSutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane (N)
UnknownSutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane (S)
UnknownTalacre, Station Road Gatepost
UnknownTamerton Foliot, The Old Station House
UnknownThorpeness, Mission Room
UnknownUffington Down
UnknownUffington, 10 Faringdon Road
UnknownUffington, 24 Faringdon Road
UnknownUffington, Woolstone Road
UnknownWarborough, Court Farm
UnknownWarborough, Thame Road
UnknownWarborough, Upper Farm
UnknownWarwick, 1 Castle Hill House
UnknownWarwick, 1 Emscote Road
UnknownWarwick, 107 Bridge End
UnknownWarwick, 3 Stratford Road
UnknownWarwick, Coventry Road Moorings
UnknownWaterperry, Bow Bridge
UnknownWaterstock, Culvert
UnknownWest Bay, Pumping Station
UnknownWest Lavington Down, Water Tank
UnknownWestminster, 19-21 Grosvenor Gardens
UnknownWestminster, Kensington Gardens, Seat Plinth
UnknownWestminster, Kensington Gardens, The Long Water
UnknownWestminster, Serpentine Bridge
UnknownWeston-super-Mare, 8 Ellenborough Park South
UnknownWeston-super-Mare, Birnbeck Pier Master's Cottage
UnknownWeston-super-Mare, Grove Park
UnknownWeston-super-Mare, Kewstoke Road
UnknownWeston-super-Mare, Kewstoke Road BS
UnknownWeston-super-Mare, Knightstone Causeway
UnknownWexcombe, Waterworks Reservoir
UnknownWeymouth, 95 Bowleaze Coveway
UnknownWeymouth, Gloucester Hotel
UnknownWeymouth, Tide Gauge Aux 2
UnknownWharram Percy, Deep Dale #2
UnknownWhitby, Promontory Point
UnknownWhitby, Sea Wall
UnknownWhitby, The Dolphin
UnknownWhitby, Tide Gauge BM
UnknownWillenhall, Bentley Wharf Bridge
UnknownWinchcombe, Briar Cottage, Castle Street
UnknownWinchcombe, Youth Centre
UnknownWinslow, 2 Western Lane
UnknownWinslow, 25 Horn Street
UnknownWolvercote, Godstow Bridge
UnknownWoodbridge, Kyson Hill
UnknownWoodbridge, Sea Wall Jetty
UnknownYork, 9 Tower Place
UnknownYork, Dean's Park (Deep)
UnknownYork, Derwent College
UnknownYork, Leeman Road
UnknownYork, St Wilfred's School
UnknownYork, The Yorkshire Museum
UnknownYork, York Minster (Deep)
Unknown1985 - Lamellion, Lower Lamellion Cottage
Unknown2093 - Felixstowe, Tidal Observatory
UnknownG2964 - Castle Acre, 32 Town Lane
UnknownG3295 - Knockin Heath
UnknownS0720 - Plymouth, Lambhay Hill
UnknownS6276 - Mostyn, Railway Station
UnknownS8627 - Brook Street, Mascalls Lane
UnknownS6435 - Holywell, County Primary School


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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By Type

Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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