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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


December 2007
23 - Little Wittenham
Little Wittenham, Christmas Cottage
Little Wittenham, Lock Keeper's House
Little Wittenham, 1 Hillside
Day's Lock
Little Wittenham, St Peter's Church
S5724 - Lowbury Hill
Hailey, Hill Farm
Hailey, Letterbox
Ipsden, Hailey House
Ipsden Farm
Ipsden House
Hailey, Stone Farm
Ipsden, St Mary's Church
2009 - Cop Court
Newnham Murren, St Mary's Church
Nettlebed, Windmill
Newnham Manor Farm
Newnham Murren, The Pheasantry
Oxford, Balliol College (W)
Oxford, St. Mary Magdalen's Church
Marston, St Nicholas Church
October 2007
Knighton Barn
Uffington Down
Whitehorse Hill
2987 - White Horse Hill
Oxford, Osney Bridge
Oxford, Railway Hotel
September 2007
Sutton Courtenay, Lady Place
Oxford, St Peter-le-Bailey Church
Oxford, Carfax Tower
Oxford, Carfax Tower (Cancelled)
Oxford, St. Michael's Church
East Molesey, 92 Walton Road
Clifton Hampden Bridge
G1115 - Pitlochry, Atholl Road
G1114 - Pitlochry, West Moulin Road
G2076 - John o' Groats
John o' Groats (Transfer Bolt)
S6678 - Duncansby Head
G1300 - Thurso, Tide Gauge Aux 3
Dunnet Head, Lighthouse 2 Milestone
Dunnet Head, Lighthouse 1 Milestone
S4781 - Dunnet Head
August 2007
10640 - Mull Head
Papa Westray, Whitelooms
Papa Westray, Papay Parish Kirk
Papa Westray, Holland
Papa Westray, Gayfield
10814 - Gayfield
Westray, Noltland Castle
Westray, Vell
Westray, West Kirbest
S4734 - Fitty Hill
Westray, Gallo Hill
Westray, Knucker Hill
Westray, B9067
Westray, Skaill
10639 - Noup Head
10646 - Langskaill
10644 - Whitelet
S9325 - Breck
Westray, United Free Church
Westray, Lengemire
Westray, Cedarleigh
Westray, Pierowall Church
10850 - Glimps Holm
Weddell Sound (Orkney)
by Graemeshall (Orkney)
12151 - Hobbister (Orkney)
Stenness, Burn of Villas
10677 - Wideford Hill
Kirkwall, 1 Albert Street
Kirkwall, 6 Broad Street
Kirkwall, Town Hall
Sandwick, Voydale
Stenness, Housequoy
Stenness, B9055
Stenness, Stones of Stenness
Stenness, Watch Stone
Stenness, Ring of Brodgar
11994 - Sandwick (Orkney)
Sandwick, Sea View
Sandwick, Skaill
Sandwick, B9056
12112 - Kirkwall (Orkney)
Dingwall, Ross Memorial Hospital
Dingwall, Tulloch Lodge
Dingwall, 10 Fraser Road
Dingwall, Back Road
G4466 - Dingwall, Holborn
Dingwall, 15 Mill Street
Dingwall, 29 Burn Place
G1977 - Dingwall
Dingwall, Highland Theological College
Dingwall, St James's Church
Dingwall, Council Offices
G475 - Moffat, New Bridge
G476 - Moffat, Academy
G477 - Moffat, Post Office
Moffat, St Andrew's Church
G381 - Moffat, Home End
Newbury, Head Post Office
Cholsey, 26 Wallingford Road
Ewelme, Huntingland
S3763 - Huntingland
Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Oxford, Headington Post Office
Oxford, 24 Bowness Avenue
July 2007
Cokethorpe, St Mary's Church
Hardwick, Standlake Road
Hardwick Farm
Hardwick, Old Bus Shelter
G3647 - Marcham
30 - Marcham Village
S0949 - Mountnessing
S0951 - Brentwood, Ongar Road
S8627 - Brook Street, Mascalls Lane
Bentley, St Paul's Primary School
Navestock Side, 1 Snakes Hill
Bentley, 28 Mores Lane
Bentley, St Paul's Church
Brook Street, Mascalls Lane
Mountnessing, 1 Church Road
S8628 - Ingrave
S0952 - Brentwood, High Street
S0950 - Mountnessing School
Kelvedon Hatch, The Eagle
Kelvedon Hatch, The Shepherd
Kelvedon Hatch, St Nicholas Church
S3874 - Fox Hatch
Wallingford, 5 Thames Street
Newbury, 78 Northbrook Street
Newbury, Bartholomew Street
Newbury, 55 Cheap Street
Newbury, St Nicolas Church (S)
Newbury, St Nicolas Church (W)
Newbury, 18 Northcroft Lane (SW)
Newbury, 18 Northcroft Lane (SE)
Newbury, Bridge Street
Newbury, 91-92 Northbrook Street
Sutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane (S)
Sutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane
Sutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane (N)
Dorchester, Abingdon Road
Culham Station
G3643 - Culham, Railway Hotel
Sutton Courtenay, Old School House
Sutton Courtenay, Brook Street
Sutton Courtenay, All Saints Church
Sutton Courtenay, 87 High Street
Didcot, Milestone, Wantage 7
Preston Crowmarsh, A4074
Harwell, St Matthew's Church (E)
Harwell, St Matthew's Church (W)
Harwell, High Street
Harwell, The White Hart
Harwell, Townsend Cottage
G3636 - Crowmarsh Battle Farm
Preston Crowmarsh, Monks Close
Appleford, Birch Cottage
Appleford, Old Post Office
Oxford Stadium, Sandy Lane
Long Wittenham, Bow Bridge
Sutton Courtenay, B4016
Oxford, 45 Sandy Lane
Sutton Courtenay, The Fish
Sutton Courtenay, Appleford Sidings
Appleford Station
Appleford, St Peter and St Paul's Church
Appleford, Hartwright House
Appleford, Hill Farm
Crowmarsh Gifford, The Street
Ewelme, Icknield Way
Wallingford, 60 High Street
Didcot, A4130
Loughborough, 262 Forest Road
Loughborough, 290 Forest Road
Loughborough, 1 Holywell Drive
Loughborough, Outwoods Drive
Loughborough, 30 Outwoods Drive
Loughborough, 189 Forest Road
June 2007
Wallingford, Mortuary Chapel
Wallingford, Lamb Garage
Wallingford, Lamb Arcade
Wallingford School
Wallingford, Ptolomy House
Wallingford, St Leonard's Church
Wallingford, Thames Path
Clifton Hampden, St Michael and All Angels Church
Wallingford, Castle Lane
Wallingford, 1-2 High Street
Wallingford Bridge, South Parapet
Wallingford Bridge, North Parapet
Crowmarsh Gifford, St Mary Magdalene's Church
Crowmarsh Gifford, Benson Lane
Crowmarsh Gifford, Marsh Lane
Wallingford, Thames Path
Benson Primary School
Benson, Elm Bridge
Benson Waterfront
Benson Lock
Foxton, Foxton Road
Foxton, Gallow Field Road
Gumley, Foxton Road
Loughborough, Jack O' Lantern
Loughborough, Clarence Street
Loughborough, 99 Burder Street
Loughborough, 41 Burder Street
Foxton, St Andrew's Church
Culham, Sutton Bridge
Culham, Sutton Bridge
Britwell Salome, St Nicholas Church
Britwell Salome, Plough Cottage
G3633 - Coopers Farm
Sutton Courtenay, Gatehouse
Sutton Courtenay, Burgrey Stores
Frog Hole
Crowmarsh Gifford, Howbery Park
6 - Gatehampton Bridge
May 2007
Cwmbelan, Jubilee Terrace
11675 - Cwmbelan
11674 - Upper Penrhuddlan
11649 - Gaufron
S0682 - Dolhelfa-uchaf
Claerwen Bridge
Craig Goch Dam
Caban Coch Dam
Reading, 127 Amity Road
Reading, 2 Woodstock Street
Reading, 31 Cumberland Road
Reading, Liverpool Road
Reading, Orts Road
Reading, Cholmeley Road #2
Reading, Horseshoe Bridge
Reading, Cholmeley Road #1
Reading, New Town Infants School
Bath, 23 Charles Street
April 2007
Walton-on-Thames, Camping and Caravanning Club
Kew, Ferry Lane
Kew Gardens, Nash Conservatory
Kew Gardens, King William's Temple
Kew Gardens, Pagoda
March 2007
S4667 - Down Hill
S0807 - Faringdon, Coxwell Road
G4440 - Lymington, Passford Bridge
January 2007
Oswestry, The Smithfield Hotel
76 - Caversham Hotel


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush Bracket(188)
Projecting Bracket(6)
OSBM Bolt(10)
Cut Bench Mark(1285)
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt(73)
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Triangulation Pillar(93)
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