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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


December 2007
Destroyed23 - Little Wittenham
UnknownLittle Wittenham, Christmas Cottage
DestroyedLittle Wittenham, Lock Keeper's House
Cut Bench MarkLittle Wittenham, 1 Hillside
RivetLittle Wittenham, Day's Lock
Cut Bench MarkLittle Wittenham, St Peter's Church
Triangulation PillarS5724 - Lowbury Hill
UnknownHailey, Hill Farm
DestroyedHailey, Letterbox
UnknownIpsden, Hailey House
Cut Bench MarkIpsden Farm
Cut Bench MarkIpsden House
Cut Bench MarkHailey, Stone Farm
Cut Bench MarkIpsden, St Mary's Church
Unknown2009 - Cop Court
Cut Bench MarkNewnham Murren, St Mary's Church
DestroyedNettlebed, Windmill
Cut Bench MarkNewnham Manor Farm
Cut Bench MarkNewnham Murren, The Pheasantry
Cut Bench MarkOxford, Balliol College (W)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltOxford, St. Mary Magdalen's Church
Cut Bench MarkMarston, St Nicholas Church
October 2007
DestroyedKnighton Barn
UnknownUffington Down
DestroyedWhitehorse Hill
Triangulation Pillar2987 - White Horse Hill
DestroyedOxford, Osney Bridge
DestroyedOxford, Railway Hotel
September 2007
Cut Bench MarkSutton Courtenay, Lady Place
Cut Bench MarkOxford, St Peter-le-Bailey Church
Cut Bench MarkOxford, Carfax Tower
Cut Bench MarkOxford, Carfax Tower (Cancelled)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltOxford, St Michael's Church
Cut Bench MarkEast Molesey, 92 Walton Road
UnknownClifton Hampden Bridge
Flush BracketG1115 - Pitlochry, Atholl Road
Flush BracketG1114 - Pitlochry, West Moulin Road
Flush BracketG2076 - John o' Groats
OSBM BoltJohn o' Groats (Transfer Bolt)
Triangulation PillarS6678 - Duncansby Head
Flush BracketG1300 - Thurso, Tide Gauge Aux 3
Cut Bench MarkDunnet Head, Lighthouse 2 Milestone
Cut Bench MarkDunnet Head, Lighthouse 1 Milestone
Triangulation PillarS4781 - Dunnet Head
August 2007
Triangulation Pillar10640 - Mull Head
Cut Bench MarkPapa Westray, Whitelooms
Cut Bench MarkPapa Westray, Papay Parish Kirk
Cut Bench MarkPapa Westray, Holland
Cut Bench MarkPapa Westray, Gayfield
Triangulation Pillar10814 - Gayfield
Cut Bench MarkWestray, Noltland Castle
Cut Bench MarkWestray, Vell
PivotWestray, West Kirbest
Triangulation PillarS4734 - Fitty Hill
PivotWestray, Gallo Hill
PivotWestray, Knucker Hill
DestroyedWestray, B9067
Cut Bench MarkWestray, Skaill
Triangulation Pillar10639 - Noup Head
Triangulation Pillar10646 - Langskaill
Triangulation Pillar10644 - Whitelet
Triangulation PillarS9325 - Breck
Cut Bench MarkWestray, United Free Church
PivotWestray, Lengemire
PivotWestray, Cedarleigh
Cut Bench MarkWestray, Pierowall Church
Triangulation Pillar10850 - Glimps Holm
OSBM BoltWeddell Sound (Orkney)
OSBM Boltby Graemeshall (Orkney)
Flush Bracket12151 - Hobbister (Orkney)
RivetStenness, Burn of Villas
Triangulation Pillar10677 - Wideford Hill
Cut Bench MarkKirkwall, 1 Albert Street
Cut Bench MarkKirkwall, 6 Broad Street
Cut Bench MarkKirkwall, Town Hall
DestroyedSandwick, Voydale
PivotStenness, Housequoy
Cut Bench MarkStenness, B9055
Cut Bench MarkStenness, Stones of Stenness
Cut Bench MarkStenness, Watch Stone
Cut Bench MarkStenness, Ring of Brodgar
Flush Bracket11994 - Sandwick (Orkney)
RivetSandwick, Sea View
Cut Bench MarkSandwick, Skaill
Cut Bench MarkSandwick, B9056
Flush Bracket12112 - Kirkwall (Orkney)
Cut Bench MarkDingwall, Ross Memorial Hospital
Cut Bench MarkDingwall, Tulloch Lodge
Cut Bench MarkDingwall, 10 Fraser Road
Cut Bench MarkDingwall, Back Road
Flush BracketG4466 - Dingwall, Holborn
Cut Bench MarkDingwall, 15 Mill Street
Cut Bench MarkDingwall, 29 Burn Place
Flush BracketG1977 - Dingwall
Cut Bench Mark with BoltDingwall, Highland Theological College
Cut Bench MarkDingwall, St James's Church
Cut Bench MarkDingwall, Council Offices
Flush BracketG475 - Moffat, New Bridge
Flush BracketG476 - Moffat, Academy
Flush BracketG477 - Moffat, Post Office
Cut Bench MarkMoffat, St Andrew's Church
Flush BracketG381 - Moffat, Home End
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, Head Post Office
Cut Bench MarkCholsey, 26 Wallingford Road
DestroyedEwelme, Huntingland
Triangulation PillarS3763 - Huntingland
RivetSwyncombe, Icknield Field
Cut Bench MarkOxford, Headington Post Office
Cut Bench MarkOxford, 24 Bowness Avenue
July 2007
Cut Bench MarkCokethorpe, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench MarkHardwick, Standlake Road
RivetHardwick Farm
Cut Bench MarkHardwick, Old Bus Shelter
Flush BracketG3647 - Marcham
Flush Bracket30 - Marcham Village
DestroyedS0949 - Mountnessing
DestroyedS0951 - Brentwood, Ongar Road
UnknownS8627 - Brook Street, Mascalls Lane
DestroyedBentley, St Paul's Primary School
DestroyedNavestock Side, 1 Snakes Hill
Cut Bench MarkBentley, 28 Mores Lane
Cut Bench MarkBentley, St Paul's Church
Cut Bench MarkBrook Street, Mascalls Lane
Cut Bench MarkMountnessing, 1 Church Road
Flush BracketS8628 - Ingrave
Flush BracketS0952 - Brentwood, High Street
Flush BracketS0950 - Mountnessing School
Cut Bench MarkKelvedon Hatch, The Eagle
Cut Bench MarkKelvedon Hatch, The Shepherd
Cut Bench MarkKelvedon Hatch, St Nicholas Church
Triangulation PillarS3874 - Fox Hatch
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, 5 Thames Street
DestroyedNewbury, 78 Northbrook Street
DestroyedNewbury, Bartholomew Street
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, 55 Cheap Street
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, St Nicolas Church (S)
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, St Nicolas Church (W)
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, 18 Northcroft Lane (SW)
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, 18 Northcroft Lane (SE)
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, Bridge Street
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, 91-92 Northbrook Street
UnknownSutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane (S)
UnknownSutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane
UnknownSutton Courtenay, Peep-O-Day Lane (N)
Cut Bench MarkDorchester, Abingdon Road
Cut Bench MarkCulham Station
Flush BracketG3643 - Culham, Railway Hotel
Cut Bench MarkSutton Courtenay, Old School House
Cut Bench MarkSutton Courtenay, Brook Street
Cut Bench MarkSutton Courtenay, All Saints Church
Cut Bench MarkSutton Courtenay, 87 High Street
UnknownDidcot, Milestone, Wantage 7
DestroyedPreston Crowmarsh, A4074
Cut Bench MarkHarwell, St Matthew's Church (E)
Cut Bench MarkHarwell, St Matthew's Church (W)
RivetHarwell, High Street
RivetHarwell, The White Hart
Cut Bench MarkHarwell, Townsend Cottage
Flush BracketG3636 - Crowmarsh Battle Farm
DestroyedPreston Crowmarsh, Monks Close
UnknownAppleford, Birch Cottage
UnknownAppleford, Old Post Office
DestroyedOxford Stadium, Sandy Lane
UnknownLong Wittenham, Bow Bridge
UnknownSutton Courtenay, B4016
Cut Bench MarkOxford, 45 Sandy Lane
Cut Bench MarkSutton Courtenay, The Fish
RivetSutton Courtenay, Appleford Sidings
Cut Bench MarkAppleford, Station Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkAppleford, St Peter and St Paul's Church
Cut Bench MarkAppleford, Hartwright House
Cut Bench MarkAppleford, Hill Farm
Cut Bench MarkCrowmarsh Gifford, The Street
DestroyedEwelme, Icknield Way
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, 60 High Street
RivetDidcot, A4130
UnknownLoughborough, 262 Forest Road
DestroyedLoughborough, 290 Forest Road
Cut Bench MarkLoughborough, 1 Holywell Drive
RivetLoughborough, Outwoods Drive
Cut Bench MarkLoughborough, 30 Outwoods Drive
Cut Bench MarkLoughborough, 189 Forest Road
June 2007
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, Mortuary Chapel
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, Lamb Garage
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, Lamb Arcade
Cut Bench MarkWallingford School
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, Ptolomy House
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, St Leonard's Church
DestroyedWallingford, Thames Path
Cut Bench MarkClifton Hampden, St Michael and All Angels Church
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, Castle Lane
Cut Bench MarkWallingford, 1-2 High Street
Cut Bench MarkWallingford Bridge, South Parapet
Cut Bench MarkWallingford Bridge, North Parapet
Cut Bench MarkCrowmarsh Gifford, St Mary Magdalene's Church
Cut Bench MarkCrowmarsh Gifford, Benson Lane
Cut Bench MarkCrowmarsh Gifford, Marsh Lane
DestroyedWallingford, Thames Path
Cut Bench MarkBenson Primary School
Cut Bench MarkBenson, Elm Bridge
RivetBenson Waterfront
Cut Bench MarkBenson Lock
UnknownFoxton, Foxton Road
UnknownFoxton, Gallow Field Road
UnknownGumley, Foxton Road
Cut Bench MarkLoughborough, Jack O' Lantern
Cut Bench MarkLoughborough, Clarence Street
Cut Bench MarkLoughborough, 99 Burder Street
Cut Bench MarkLoughborough, 41 Burder Street
Cut Bench MarkFoxton, St Andrew's Church
DestroyedCulham, Sutton Bridge
PivotCulham, Sutton Bridge
Cut Bench MarkBritwell Salome, St Nicholas Church
Cut Bench MarkBritwell Salome, Plough Cottage
Flush BracketG3633 - Coopers Farm
DestroyedSutton Courtenay, Gatehouse
Cut Bench MarkSutton Courtenay, Burgrey Stores
RivetFrog Hole
Cut Bench MarkCrowmarsh Gifford, Howbery Park
Flush Bracket6 - Gatehampton Bridge
May 2007
UnknownCwmbelan, Jubilee Terrace
Flush Bracket11675 - Cwmbelan
Flush Bracket11674 - Upper Penrhuddlan
Flush Bracket11649 - Gaufron
Flush BracketS0682 - Dolhelfa-uchaf
Cut Bench MarkClaerwen Bridge
Cut Bench MarkCraig Goch Dam
OSBM BoltCaban Coch Dam
Cut Bench MarkReading, 144A Cholmeley Road
DestroyedReading, 127 Amity Road
DestroyedReading, 2 Woodstock Street
DestroyedReading, 31 Cumberland Road
UnknownReading, Liverpool Road
DestroyedReading, Orts Road
Cut Bench MarkReading, Cholmeley Road #2
Cut Bench MarkReading, Horseshoe Bridge
Cut Bench MarkReading, Cholmeley Road #1
Cut Bench MarkReading, New Town Infants School
Cut Bench MarkBath, 23 Charles Street
April 2007
Cut Bench MarkWalton-on-Thames, Camping and Caravanning Club
Cut Bench MarkKew, Ferry Lane
Cut Bench MarkKew Gardens, Nash Conservatory
RivetKew Gardens, King William's Temple
Cut Bench MarkKew Gardens, Pagoda
March 2007
Triangulation PillarS4667 - Down Hill
DestroyedS0807 - Faringdon, Coxwell Road
Flush BracketG4440 - Lymington, Passford Bridge
January 2007
Cut Bench MarkOswestry, The Smithfield Hotel
Destroyed76 - Caversham Hotel


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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