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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


December 2021
Cut Bench MarkLoughborough, Cemetery Chapel
October 2021
Cut Bench MarkCardiff, 42 Fairwater Road
DestroyedLlanishen, Royal Ordnance Factory
DestroyedLlanishen, Royal Ordnance Factory
Cut Bench MarkLlanishen, Caerphilly Road Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkCardiff, 43 Beulah Road
Cut Bench MarkCardiff, 36 Beulah Road
DestroyedCardiff, Beulah United Reformed Church
RivetCardiff, Pantbach Road Railway Bridge
UnknownCardiff, Rhiwbina Railway Station
Cut Bench MarkCardiff, Ty Nant, Heol Wen
Cut Bench MarkCardiff, 114/116 Pen-y-Dre
Cut Bench MarkCardiff, Llantrisant Road Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkCardiff, Leckwith Road Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkCardiff, Ninian Park Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkPenrhiwceiber, Old Police Station, Railway Terrace
UnknownPenrhiwceiber, Railway Terrace
Cut Bench MarkMountain Ash, Maes-yr-Arian Cemetery, Wall
Cut Bench MarkMountain Ash, Maes-yr-Arian Cemetery, Gatepost
Cut Bench MarkTroed-y-rhiw, Bridge Street
DestroyedTonypandy, 118 Trealaw Road
Cut Bench MarkTonypandy, 131 Trealaw Road
DestroyedTonypandy, Bridge Street
Cut Bench MarkTon Pentre, Afon Rhondda Fawr Bridge
Cut Bench MarkTreorchy. Station Road Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkCardiff, Prince of Wales
Cut Bench MarkTrehafod, Hafod Primary School
Cut Bench MarkTipton, Church of St Martin and St Paul
Cut Bench MarkPenkridge, The Corner Cottage, New Road
Cut Bench Mark with BoltPenkridge, Church of St Michael and All Angels
UnknownCrewe, 82 Mill Street
DestroyedCrewe, Chapel Street
Cut Bench MarkCrewe, Mill Street Railway Bridge
UnknownMeonstoke, Harvestgate Farm
August 2021
UnknownWexcombe, Waterworks Reservoir
DestroyedFolkestone, Folkestone Harbour Station
DestroyedFolkestone, 43 Tontine Street
UnknownHythe, Royal Military Canal Footbridge
DestroyedDungeness, Back Straight #2
Cut Bench MarkDungeness, Back Straight Entrance
RivetDungeness, Back Straight #1
Cut Bench MarkDungeness, Mossy Cottage
Cut Bench MarkDungenees, Old Lighthouse
Cut Bench MarkDeal, Lloyds Bank
Cut Bench MarkDeal, Victoria Baptist Church
Cut Bench MarkDeal, Masonic Hall
Cut Bench MarkDeal, 10 Broad Street
Cut Bench MarkDeal, The Bohemian
Cut Bench MarkDeal, Royal Leisure Centre
Cut Bench MarkDeal, Town Hall
Cut Bench MarkDeal, The Royal Hotel
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWalmer, St Saviour's Church
Flush BracketS0700 - Dover Castle, Constable's Gate
Cut Bench MarkDover Castle, Spur Casemates
Cut Bench Mark with BoltDover Castle, The Keep
Cut Bench MarkDover Castle, Palace Gate
RivetDover Castle, Church of St Mary in Castro
Cut Bench MarkDover Castle, Well House
Cut Bench MarkDover Castle, Avranches Tower Steps
UnknownDover Castle, Godwin Road Car Park
Cut Bench MarkDover Castle, Godwin Road, Shelter Entrance
Cut Bench MarkDover, Canons Gate Road, Pillar
Cut Bench MarkDover Castle, Regimental Institute
Cut Bench MarkDover Castle, Say's Tower
Cut Bench Mark with BoltDover Castle, Peverell's Tower
RivetDover, Castle Hill Road
DestroyedDover, Building NE of Castle
DestroyedFolkestone, Martello Tower #3
UnknownFolkestone, East Cliff Shelter
Cut Bench MarkFolkestone, Radnor Street Railway Bridge
Cut Bench Mark with BoltFolkestone, St Mary and St Eanswythe's Church
Cut Bench MarkFolkestone, Town Hall
Cut Bench MarkFolkestone, The Prince Albert Hotel
UnknownFolkestone, Harbour Arm
Cut Bench MarkFolkestone, Pier Head Lighthouse
Cut Bench MarkFolkestone, Coronation Parade
DestroyedFolkestone, East Cliff Pavilion
DestroyedFolkestone, 38 Wear Bay Road
Cut Bench MarkFolkestone, Wear Bay Road, Public Toilets
Cut Bench MarkFolkestone, 17 The Stade
June 2021
UnknownPortsmouth, 60 High Street
Cut Bench MarkPortsmouth, High Street
Cut Bench MarkPortsmouth, The Cottage, Pembroke Road
UnknownPortsmouth, Junior Grammar School
Cut Bench MarkPortsmouth, 23 High Street
RivetPortsmouth, Museum Road
Cut Bench MarkPortsmouth, Cambridge Junction
DestroyedPortsmouth, Cambridge Road
Cut Bench MarkPortsmouth, Hampshire Terrace
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, Ponsonby House, St James's Road
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, 8 Kings Road
May 2021
UnknownFarmoor, Pinkhill Weir
RivetFarmoor, Pinkhill Lock
UnknownFarmoor, Shrike Meadow
Cut Bench MarkFarmoor, Reservoir Pumping Station
UnknownWaterperry, Bow Bridge
Cut Bench MarkWaterstock, Home Farm
Cut Bench MarkWaterstock, St Leonard's Church
UnknownWaterstock, Culvert
Cut Bench MarkWaterstock, Waterstock Mill
Cut Bench MarkWaterperry, South Lodge
April 2021
Cut Bench MarkDidcot, All Saints' Church
DestroyedDidcot, Smiths Farm
Cut Bench MarkDidcot, 139 Brasenose Road
DestroyedHarwell, Blenheim, Didcot Road
Cut Bench MarkHarwell, Hollybank Cottage, Reading Road
Flush BracketChilton, Chilton House
Cut Bench MarkUpton, Railway Cutting Bridge
Cut Bench MarkUpton, Railway Cutting Gatepost
Cut Bench MarkUpton, The George & Dragon
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, Luker Court
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, Wormestall Grange
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, Clarence Pier PC
DestroyedSouthsea, Odeon Cinema
UnknownSouthsea, 19 Highland Terrace
DestroyedSouthsea, 38 Aston Road
DestroyedSouthsea, 116 Haslemere Road
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, 88 Haslemere Road
DestroyedSouthsea, 87 Devonshire Avenue
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, 69 Winter Road
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, Highland Cemetery Entrance
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, Highland Road
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, Festing Grove
UnknownSouthsea, St Helens Parade
DestroyedSouthsea, 21 St Helens Parade
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, Granada Road
DestroyedSouthsea, South Parade Pier
RivetSouthsea, South Parade / The Dell
UnknownSouthsea, Esplanade #1
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, Esplanade #2
UnknownSouthsea, Esplanade #3
DestroyedEast Lockinge, 20 East Lockinge
UnknownEast Lockinge, Lockinge Manor
Cut Bench MarkLockinge, All Saints' Church
UnknownLockinge, Betterton Brook
UnknownLockinge, Betterton Road
Cut Bench MarkArdington, Church Street
Cut Bench MarkArdington, Holy Trinity Church
Cut Bench MarkBlewbury, 4 Ashbrook Mews
UnknownBlewbury, 1 Pound Cottage
DestroyedBlewbury, 20 London Road
DestroyedBlewbury, Hillview, Bessels Lea
Cut Bench MarkBlewbury, Holt Cottage, South Street
Cut Bench MarkBlewbury, St Michael's Church
Cut Bench MarkBlewbury, Fron-Deg, Westbrook Street
DestroyedAbingdon, Barton Lane
UnknownLong Wittenham, Ash Barn House, High Street
UnknownLong Wittenham, Thames Path #1
UnknownLong Wittenham, Thames Path #2
March 2021
Cut Bench MarkNewbury, Sandpit Hill MS
February 2021
Cut Bench MarkNewton Purcell, A4421 Railway Bridge


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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