© John Talbot. No images may be copied, downloaded or reproduced without prior written permission.

Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland

Flush Bracket

G2612 - Ffestiniog, Tal-y-bont
Westminster, Elizabeth Tower
5 - Sot's Hole
6 - Gatehampton Bridge
8 - Moulsford, Beetle and Wedge Inn
9 - North Stoke, Church
10 - Newnham Murren
11 - Wallingford Bridge
22 - Shillingford Bridge
24 - Clifton Hampden Bridge
25 - Clifton Hampden, Clifton Lock
26 - Appleford Railway Bridge
27 - Culham Lock Bridge
30 - Marcham Village
32 - Kingston Bagpuize, St John the Baptist Church
33 - Southmoor, Waggon and Horses
55 - East Grimstead, Railway Bridge
60 - Salisbury, St Mary's Cathedral
61 - Salisbury, Fisherton Street Railway Bridge
75 - Appletree Eyot
112 - Tadpole Bridge
464 - Warwick, 146 Coventry Road
526 - Warwick, Castle Bridge
529 - Royal Leamington Spa, Clemens Street
608 - Warwick, Police Station
828 - Marsworth Top - Bridge 1
829 - Tring Cutting - Bridge 134
834 - Berkhamsted
836 - Berkhamsted
915 - Brecon, St. Mary's Church
1023 - Remenham Hill, Five Horse Shoes PH
1025 - Henley-on-Thames
1026 - Henley Bridge
1029 - Nettlebed
1030 - Bix
1031 - Nuffield
1251 - Appleby, St Lawrence's Bridge
1759 - Chipping Campden, The Corner House
1760 - Chipping Campden, Wixey House
1761 - Chipping Campden, Sheep Street
1956 - Shenley Church End
1966 - Winslow, Bell Hotel
1979 - Alnwick, Town Hall
1986 - Thame, Upper High Street
1992 - Waddesdon, Station Bridge
1998 - Long Crendon, Church End
1999 - Long Crendon
2001 - Thame, St. Mary's Church
2006 - Thame Railway Station
2008 - Thame Park
2012 - Stoke Talmage
2015 - Brightwell Baldwin, Lord Nelson PH
2032 - Ewelme
2033 - Allnutt's Barn
2423 - York, High Petergate
2461 - Southbourne, St John the Evangelist Church
2531 - Bakewell, Victoria Mill
2646 - Oswestry, St Oswald's Church
2680 - Aldeburgh, Moot Hall
2698 - Hay, Crown Hotel
2775 - Cooden, Railway Bridge
2941 - Southampton, Board of Trade
2970 - Southampton, Castle
2971 - Southampton, Town Quay
G381 - Moffat, Home End
G475 - Moffat, New Bridge
G476 - Moffat, Academy
G477 - Moffat, Post Office
G1114 - Pitlochry, West Moulin Road
G1115 - Pitlochry, Atholl Road
G1241 - Beeston Regis, Abbey Farm
G1300 - Thurso, Tide Gauge Aux 3
G1511 - Wrentham
G1692 - Greenwich, Royal Observatory
G1791 - Carmel College Lodge
G1799 - Pevensey Bridge
G1806 - Herstmonceux, Solar Building
G1934 - Wick, Market Place
G1977 - Dingwall
G2076 - John o' Groats
G2312 - Bakewell, Council Offices
G2377 - Shepshed, Baptist Church
G2754 - Caernarfon, Post Office
G2842 - Llanddulas, Gwrych Castle, Northern Towers
G2843 - Llanddulas, Hen Wrych Farm
G2844 - Pensarn, The Park
G2846 - Towyn, Palins Holiday Park
G2888 - Burley Street
G2904 - Brockenhurst, St. Saviour's Church
G2909 - Bisterne Close
G2910 - Dyserth, Allt-Y-Graig
G2911 - Dyserth, Prengwyn
G3009 - Llangollen, Smithfield Hotel
G3033 - Oswestry, Railway Inn
G3198 - Harpley, April Cottage
G3632 - Watlington
G3633 - Coopers Farm
G3635 - Benson
G3636 - Crowmarsh Battle Farm
G3642 - Long Wittenham, The Vine
G3643 - Culham, Railway Hotel
G3645 - Culham Bridge
G3646 - Abingdon, The Grapes
G3647 - Marcham
G3653 - Buscot Park, West Lodge
G3654 - Buscot
G3656 - Lechlade-on-Thames, Market Place
G3657 - Lechlade-on-Thames, Downington
G3690 - Cirencester, Dyer House
G3691 - Cirencester, Museum
G3882 - Gore Cross Farm
G3924 - Chepstow Racecourse, Lions Lodge
G3942 - Wilton, Swan Inn
G4040 - Blewbury
G4142 - Castle Rising, St Lawrence's Church
G4144 - King's Lynn, Gaywood Bridge
G4145 - King's Lynn, St John's Church
G4146 - King's Lynn, Post Office
G4440 - Lymington, Passford Bridge
G4466 - Dingwall, Holborn
G4693 - Whitefield Farm
G4916 - Bryn Hyfryd
G4967 - Brynrefail
G5016 - Plymouth, Rock Gardens Railway Bridge
G5214 - Llanddulas, Tan-Yr-Allt Road
G5228 - Ty-mawr, Farmhouse Inn
S0103 - West Runton
S0167 - Little Rollright, The Toll House
S0349 - Machynlleth
S0356 - Conway, Guildhall
S0436 - Bala, Old School
S0507 - Malmesbury, Town Hall
S0541 - St Paul's Cathedral
S0545 - Hurst Castle, Pump House
S0682 - Dolhelfa-uchaf
S0707 - Faversham, St Mary of Charity Church
S0740 - Builth Wells, Wyeside Arts Centre
S0741 - Builth Wells, St Mary's Church
S0778 - Newbury, Methodist Church
S0791 - Amesbury, St Mary & St Melor Church
S0931 - Kensington Gore, Royal Geographical Society
S0950 - Mountnessing School
S0952 - Brentwood, High Street
S0959 - Kingston upon Thames, Town Hall
S0960 - Kingston upon Thames, All Saints' Church
S1457 - Winchcombe, The Old School Building
S1458 - Winchcombe, Castle Street
S2028 - Aston Rowant, Lambert Arms
S2823 - Ilfracombe, Springfield Road
S6106 - Tewkesbury
S6269 - Shotton, St Ethelwold's Church
S6273 - Greenfield, Holy Trinity Church
S6275 - Mostyn, Christ Church
S6431 - Filkins, The Lamb Inn
S6432 - Witney, Council Offices
S6433 - Witney, Holy Trinity Church
S6434 - Witney, 1 High Street
S7544 - Beaumaris, Post Office
S7547 - Benllech, Congregational Chapel
S7548 - Llanallgo, School
S7552 - Cemaes Bay, Harbour View
S8393 - Dimmock's Cote Bridge
S8628 - Ingrave
S9109 - Cardiff, Duke Stret
S9111 - Penarth, Schooner Inn
S9140 - Stockbridge, Town Hall
S9305 - Warkworth, St Lawrence's Church
S9664 - Ullesthorpe, Railway Bridge
S9855 - Poole, Old Library
S9950 - Sinah Farm
10167 - Twyford, Village Hall
10422 - Corfe Castle, Pumping Station
11038 - Yarnton, 158 Cassington Road
11070 - River Aray Bridge
11264 - Thropton, Three Wheat Heads
11327 - Wantage, Council Offices
11328 - Challow Station
11443 - Ffestiniog, Pont Yr Afon Gam
11649 - Gaufron
11674 - Upper Penrhuddlan
11675 - Cwmbelan
11748 - Millrigg Farm
11983 - Pistyll, Capel Bethania
11994 - Sandwick (Orkney)
12103 - Tuggal Hall
12104 - Embleton, Vincent Edwards School
12112 - Kirkwall (Orkney)
12151 - Hobbister (Orkney)


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

Show Help

By Type

Explanation of Types
Flush Bracket(188)
Projecting Bracket(6)
OSBM Bolt(10)
Cut Bench Mark(1285)
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt(73)
Fundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation Pillar(93)
 Show All(2270)

By Year

2018 (153)
2017 (253)
2016 (386)
2015 (409)
2014 (256)
2013 (120)
2012 (21)
2011 (78)
2010 (54)
2009 (84)
2008 (79)
2007 (248)
2006 (16)
2005 (39)
2004 (72)
2003 (2)