© John Talbot. No images may be copied, downloaded or reproduced without prior written permission.

Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland

Flush Bracket

Flush BracketChilton, Chilton House
Flush BracketKennington, Police Station
Flush BracketWestminster, Elizabeth Tower
Flush Bracket5 - Sot's Hole
Flush Bracket6 - Gatehampton Bridge
Flush Bracket8 - Moulsford, Beetle and Wedge Inn
Flush Bracket9 - North Stoke, Church
Flush Bracket10 - Newnham Murren
Flush Bracket11 - Wallingford Bridge
Flush Bracket22 - Shillingford Bridge
Flush Bracket24 - Clifton Hampden Bridge
Flush Bracket25 - Clifton Hampden, Clifton Lock
Flush Bracket26 - Appleford Railway Bridge
Flush Bracket27 - Culham Lock Bridge
Flush Bracket30 - Marcham Village
Flush Bracket32 - Kingston Bagpuize, St John the Baptist Church
Flush Bracket33 - Southmoor, Waggon and Horses
Flush Bracket55 - East Grimstead, Railway Bridge
Flush Bracket60 - Salisbury, St Mary's Cathedral
Flush Bracket61 - Salisbury, Fisherton Street Railway Bridge
Flush Bracket75 - Appletree Eyot
Flush Bracket112 - Tadpole Bridge
Flush Bracket205 - Dorchester, The Keep
Flush Bracket218 - Maiden Newton, Railway Station
Flush Bracket333 - Gloucester, Shire Hall
Flush Bracket464 - Warwick, 146 Coventry Road
Flush Bracket526 - Warwick, Castle Bridge
Flush Bracket529 - Royal Leamington Spa, Clemens Street
Flush Bracket608 - Warwick, Police Station
Flush Bracket828 - Marsworth Top - Bridge 1
Flush Bracket829 - Tring Cutting - Bridge 134
Flush Bracket834 - Berkhamsted
Flush Bracket836 - Berkhamsted
Flush Bracket856 - Hebden Bridge, White Lion Hotel
Flush Bracket915 - Brecon, St. Mary's Church
Flush Bracket1023 - Remenham Hill, Five Horse Shoes PH
Flush Bracket1025 - Henley-on-Thames
Flush Bracket1026 - Henley Bridge
Flush Bracket1029 - Nettlebed
Flush Bracket1030 - Bix
Flush Bracket1031 - Nuffield
Flush Bracket1251 - Appleby, St Lawrence's Bridge
Flush Bracket1759 - Chipping Campden, The Corner House
Flush Bracket1760 - Chipping Campden, Wixey House
Flush Bracket1761 - Chipping Campden, Sheep Street
Flush Bracket1918 - Albaston, Albaston Farm
Flush Bracket1956 - Shenley Church End
Flush Bracket1966 - Winslow, Bell Hotel
Flush Bracket1979 - Alnwick, Town Hall
Flush Bracket1986 - Thame, Upper High Street
Flush Bracket1992 - Waddesdon, Station Bridge
Flush Bracket1998 - Long Crendon, Church End
Flush Bracket1999 - Long Crendon
Flush Bracket2001 - Thame, St. Mary's Church
Flush Bracket2006 - Thame Railway Station
Flush Bracket2008 - Thame, Thame Park
Flush Bracket2011 - Tetsworth, 116 High Street
Flush Bracket2012 - Stoke Talmage
Flush Bracket2015 - Brightwell Baldwin, Lord Nelson PH
Flush Bracket2024 - Exeter, Heavitree House
Flush Bracket2032 - Ewelme
Flush Bracket2033 - Allnutt's Barn
Flush Bracket2092 - Felixstowe, Landguard Fort
Flush Bracket2111 - Felixstowe, Trinity Methodist Church
Flush Bracket2112 - Felixstowe, St John the Baptist Church
Flush Bracket2178 - Middleton Tyas, Unnamed House
Flush Bracket2423 - York, High Petergate
Flush Bracket2461 - Southbourne, St John the Evangelist Church
Flush Bracket2531 - Bakewell, Victoria Mill
Flush Bracket2646 - Oswestry, St Oswald's Church
Flush Bracket2678 - Orford, St Bartholemew's Church
Flush Bracket2680 - Aldeburgh, Moot Hall
Flush Bracket2698 - Hay, Crown Hotel
Flush Bracket2775 - Cooden, Railway Bridge
Flush Bracket2941 - Southampton, Board of Trade
Flush Bracket2970 - Southampton, Castle
Flush Bracket2971 - Southampton, Town Quay
Flush BracketG381 - Moffat, Home End
Flush BracketG475 - Moffat, New Bridge
Flush BracketG476 - Moffat, Academy
Flush BracketG477 - Moffat, Post Office
Flush BracketG1114 - Pitlochry, West Moulin Road
Flush BracketG1115 - Pitlochry, Atholl Road
Flush BracketG1241 - Beeston Regis, Abbey Farm
Flush BracketG1300 - Thurso, Tide Gauge Aux 3
Flush BracketG1467 - Lowestoft, Hotel Hatfield
Flush BracketG1511 - Wrentham
Flush BracketG1514 - Southwold, Pumping Station
Flush BracketG1692 - Greenwich, Royal Observatory
Flush BracketG1791 - Carmel College Lodge
Flush BracketG1799 - Pevensey Bridge
Flush BracketG1806 - Herstmonceux, Solar Building
Flush BracketG1934 - Wick, Market Place
Flush BracketG1977 - Dingwall
Flush BracketG2076 - John o' Groats
Flush BracketG2312 - Bakewell, Council Offices
Flush BracketG2317 - Wolverton, Millmead Hall
Flush BracketG2377 - Shepshed, Baptist Church
Flush BracketG2612 - Ffestiniog, Tal-y-bont
Flush BracketG2754 - Caernarfon, Post Office
Flush BracketG2757 - Y Felinheli, 39 Caernarvon Road
Flush BracketG2758 - Y Felinheli, Ffinfa, Bangor Road
Flush BracketG2760 - Bangor, Deiniol Library
Flush BracketG2761 - Bangor, Post Office
Flush BracketG2762 - Bangor, Llandegai Road
Flush BracketG2764 - Llandygai, Lyric Cottage
Flush BracketG2765 - Tan-y-lôn, Bwthyn Cerrig
Flush BracketG2769 - Llanfairfechan, Christ Church
Flush BracketG2772 - Penmaenmawr, St Seriol's Church
Flush BracketG2836 - Mochdre, Tygwyn Farm
Flush BracketG2842 - Llanddulas, Gwrych Castle, Northern Towers
Flush BracketG2843 - Llanddulas, Hen Wrych Farm
Flush BracketG2844 - Pensarn, The Park
Flush BracketG2846 - Towyn, Palins Holiday Park
Flush BracketG2888 - Burley Street
Flush BracketG2904 - Brockenhurst, St. Saviour's Church
Flush BracketG2909 - Bisterne Close
Flush BracketG2910 - Dyserth, Allt-Y-Graig
Flush BracketG2911 - Dyserth, Prengwyn
Flush BracketG3009 - Llangollen, Smithfield Hotel
Flush BracketG3033 - Oswestry, Railway Inn
Flush BracketG3198 - Harpley, April Cottage
Flush BracketG3632 - Watlington
Flush BracketG3633 - Coopers Farm
Flush BracketG3635 - Benson
Flush BracketG3636 - Crowmarsh Battle Farm
Flush BracketG3642 - Long Wittenham, The Vine
Flush BracketG3643 - Culham, Railway Hotel
Flush BracketG3645 - Culham Bridge
Flush BracketG3646 - Abingdon, The Grapes
Flush BracketG3647 - Marcham
Flush BracketG3653 - Buscot Park, West Lodge
Flush BracketG3654 - Buscot
Flush BracketG3655 - Lechlade-on-Thames, Trout Inn
Flush BracketG3656 - Lechlade-on-Thames, Market Place
Flush BracketG3657 - Lechlade-on-Thames, Downington
Flush BracketG3690 - Cirencester, Dyer House
Flush BracketG3691 - Cirencester, Museum
Flush BracketG3710 - Llandaff, Station Road Bridge
Flush BracketG3882 - Gore Cross Farm
Flush BracketG3924 - Chepstow Racecourse, Lions Lodge
Flush BracketG3942 - Wilton, Swan Inn
Flush BracketG3993 - Llanishen, Railway Cottages
Flush BracketG4040 - Blewbury, Yew Tree, London Road
Flush BracketG4142 - Castle Rising, St Lawrence's Church
Flush BracketG4144 - King's Lynn, Gaywood Bridge
Flush BracketG4145 - King's Lynn, St John's Church
Flush BracketG4146 - King's Lynn, Post Office
Flush BracketG4440 - Lymington, Passford Bridge
Flush BracketG4466 - Dingwall, Holborn
Flush BracketG4693 - Whitefield Farm
Flush BracketG4702 - Cleethorpes, Dolphin Hotel
Flush BracketG4805 - Whitby, Green Lane Top
Flush BracketG4909 - Bodorgan, Meyrick Arms
Flush BracketG4910 - Pwllhalog Railway Bridge
Flush BracketTy Croes, Ty Croes House
Flush BracketG4916 - Bryn Hyfryd
Flush BracketG4918 - Caergeiliog, Gwaelod Bach
Flush BracketG4967 - Brynrefail
Flush BracketG4972 - Pentraeth, The Bull Inn
Flush BracketG5016 - Plymouth, Rock Gardens Railway Bridge
Flush BracketG5214 - Llanddulas, Tan-Yr-Allt Road
Flush BracketG5228 - Ty-mawr, Farmhouse Inn
Flush BracketL1 - London, British Museum
Flush BracketS016 - Dunwich, High Street
Flush BracketS017 - Walberswick, Dudley Cottage
Flush BracketS0103 - West Runton
Flush BracketS0167 - Little Rollright, The Toll House
Flush BracketS0221 - Woodbridge, Crown Hotel
Flush BracketS0276 - Malton, 1 Railway Street
Flush BracketS0280 - Norwich, Anglia House
Flush BracketS0297 - Scarborough, West Pier
Flush BracketS0333 - Penmaenmawr, Eglwys Y Berth
Flush BracketS0336 - Bangor, Garth Gardens
Flush BracketS0349 - Machynlleth
Flush BracketS0352 - Caernarfon, Christ Church
Flush BracketS0356 - Conway, Guildhall
Flush BracketS0436 - Bala, Old School
Flush BracketS0507 - Malmesbury, Town Hall
Flush BracketS0541 - St Paul's Cathedral
Flush BracketS0545 - Hurst Castle, Pump House
Flush BracketS0682 - Dolhelfa-uchaf
Flush BracketS0700 - Dover Castle, Constable's Gate
Flush BracketS0707 - Faversham, St Mary of Charity Church
Flush BracketS0740 - Builth Wells, Wyeside Arts Centre
Flush BracketS0741 - Builth Wells, St Mary's Church
Flush BracketS0778 - Newbury, Methodist Church
Flush BracketS0791 - Amesbury, St Mary & St Melor Church
Flush BracketS0931 - Kensington Gore, Royal Geographical Society
Flush BracketS0950 - Mountnessing School
Flush BracketS0952 - Brentwood, High Street
Flush BracketS0959 - Kingston upon Thames, Town Hall
Flush BracketS0960 - Kingston upon Thames, All Saints' Church
Flush BracketS1457 - Winchcombe, The Old School Building
Flush BracketS1458 - Winchcombe, Castle Street
Flush BracketS1966 - Bognor Regis, Waterloo Square
Flush BracketS2028 - Aston Rowant, Lambert Arms
Flush BracketS2823 - Ilfracombe, Springfield Road
Flush BracketS6106 - Tewkesbury
Flush BracketS6269 - Shotton, St Ethelwold's Church
Flush BracketS6273 - Greenfield, Holy Trinity Church
Flush BracketS6275 - Mostyn, Christ Church
Flush BracketS6431 - Filkins, The Lamb Inn
Flush BracketS6432 - Witney, Council Offices
Flush BracketS6433 - Witney, Holy Trinity Church
Flush BracketS6434 - Witney, 1 High Street
Flush BracketS6450 - Sheerness, 46 High Street
Flush BracketS6644 - Axbridge, Town Hall
Flush BracketS7544 - Beaumaris, Post Office
Flush BracketS7547 - Benllech, Congregational Chapel
Flush BracketS7548 - Llanallgo, School
Flush BracketS7552 - Cemaes Bay, Harbour View
Flush BracketS7556 - Valley, St Michael's Church
Flush BracketS8393 - Dimmock's Cote Bridge
Flush BracketS8628 - Ingrave
Flush BracketS9109 - Cardiff, Duke Stret
Flush BracketS9111 - Penarth, Schooner Inn
Flush BracketS9140 - Stockbridge, Town Hall
Flush BracketS9305 - Warkworth, St Lawrence's Church
Flush BracketS9590 - Aylsham, St Michael's Church
Flush BracketS9643 - Framlingham, Congregational Church
Flush BracketS9664 - Ullesthorpe, Railway Bridge
Flush BracketS9855 - Poole, Old Library
Flush BracketS9950 - Sinah Farm
Flush Bracket10167 - Twyford, Village Hall
Flush Bracket10422 - Corfe Castle, Pumping Station
Flush Bracket10433 - Port Seton, 12 Links Road
Flush Bracket10773 - Weston-super-Mare, Grand Atlantic Hotel
Flush Bracket11038 - Yarnton, 158 Cassington Road
Flush Bracket11051 - Little Faringdon, River Leach Bridge
Flush Bracket11070 - River Aray Bridge
Flush Bracket11096 - Harris Arms, Portgate
Flush Bracket11264 - Thropton, Three Wheat Heads
Flush Bracket11327 - Wantage, Council Offices
Flush Bracket11328 - Challow Station
Flush Bracket11443 - Ffestiniog, Pont Yr Afon Gam
Flush Bracket11649 - Gaufron
Flush Bracket11674 - Upper Penrhuddlan
Flush Bracket11675 - Cwmbelan
Flush Bracket11748 - Millrigg Farm
Flush Bracket11983 - Pistyll, Capel Bethania
Flush Bracket11994 - Sandwick (Orkney)
Flush Bracket12074 - West Bay
Flush Bracket12103 - Tuggal Hall
Flush Bracket12104 - Embleton, Vincent Edwards School
Flush Bracket12112 - Kirkwall (Orkney)
Flush Bracket12151 - Hobbister (Orkney)


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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By Type

Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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