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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


December 2004
G3645 - Culham Bridge
Wallingford, St Mary's Church
September 2004
Thame, Baptist Church
Thame, St. Mary's Church
2008 - Thame Park
2006 - Thame Railway Station
2001 - Thame, St. Mary's Church
1986 - Thame, Upper High Street
1999 - Long Crendon
1998 - Long Crendon, Church End
2012 - Stoke Talmage
Reading, St Mary's Church
Reading, 33 London Street
Reading, High Bridge
Reading Town Hall
Reading, Greyfriars Church
1030 - Bix
1026 - Henley Bridge
1025 - Henley-on-Thames
1023 - Remenham Hill, Five Horse Shoes PH
1031 - Nuffield
22 - Shillingford Bridge
2033 - Allnutt's Barn
2032 - Ewelme
August 2004
25 - Clifton Hampden, Clifton Lock
24 - Clifton Hampden Bridge
S2521 - St Catherines Hill
S2479 - Mount Joy
Chale, St Catherine's Oratory
S2517 - Wroxall Down
4 - Pangbourne, Whitchurch Bridge
3 - Mapledurham Lock
7 - Cleeve Mill
Pangbourne, Sot's Hole
Pangbourne, Whitchurch Bridge
9 - North Stoke, Church
8 - Moulsford, Beetle and Wedge Inn
75 - Appletree Eyot
5 - Sot's Hole
27 - Culham Lock Bridge
Fordham, St Peter's Church
July 2004
Culham Bridge
Moulsford Viaduct
S7542 - Castle Rising
10 - Newnham Murren
S8068 - High Bridge Farm
S5907 - Crafts Hill
S8635 - Oakington
Cambridge, Sidney Street
Cambridge, Round Church
Cambridge, Christ's College
Cambridge, Great Bridge
Woburn, Staunton House
Cambridge, St John's College
11 - Wallingford Bridge
S4909 - Nuffield
1029 - Nettlebed
S9369 - Monk Field
S5882 - Rogues Lane
S5798 - Kings Bush
June 2004
S1984 - Chalk Farm
S4365 - Gog Magog
Cholsey, St Mary's Church
S5729 - Grims Ditch
Wallingford FBM
S5730 - Pit Plantation
S5725 - Farnborough
S5074 - Coton
11155 - Littlebury Hedge
S3700 - Hurst Hill
S5540 - Brightwell Barrow
January 2004
S6207 - Monument Hill


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush Bracket(188)
Projecting Bracket(6)
OSBM Bolt(10)
Cut Bench Mark(1285)
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Triangulation Pillar(93)
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