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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


December 2008
Cut Bench MarkBradenham, St. Botolph's Church
Triangulation PillarS1522 - Cutsdean Hill
Flush Bracket112 - Tadpole Bridge
October 2008
Cut Bench MarkAbingdon, Wilts and Berks
Cut Bench Mark with BoltBessels Leigh, The Greyhound
September 2008
Cut Bench MarkDidcot, Milton Road
August 2008
DestroyedUllesthorpe, The Swan Inn
Cut Bench MarkUllesthorpe, Hill Brow
Flush BracketS9664 - Ullesthorpe, Railway Bridge
July 2008
Triangulation PillarS6936 - Greenham
June 2008
UnknownMiddle Barton, The Thatched House
Cut Bench MarkWestcott Barton, St Edward's Church
Cut Bench MarkMiddle Barton, 4 North Street
UnknownNorth Moreton, White Lees
Cut Bench MarkAppleford Road
May 2008
RivetSwanage, Jetty
Cut Bench MarkSwanage, Station Road
Flush Bracket10422 - Corfe Castle, Pumping Station
Cut Bench MarkEdinburgh, 20/21 West Mayfield
Cut Bench MarkEdinburgh, Mayfield North Church
PivotEdinburgh, 10/11 Bright's Crescent
Cut Bench MarkEdinburgh, 8 Mayfield Gardens
PivotEdinburgh, 7 Craigmillar Park
PivotEdinburgh, 36/38 Craigmillar Park
Cut Bench MarkEdinburgh, Newington Station
April 2008
Cut Bench MarkEarley, St Peter's Church (W)
Cut Bench MarkEarley, St Peter's Church
UnknownBuilth Wells, Groe Street
Flush BracketS0741 - Builth Wells, St Mary's Church
Flush BracketS0740 - Builth Wells, Wyeside Arts Centre
RivetBuilth Wells, The Strand
RivetBuilth Wells, Wye Bridge
Cut Bench MarkBuilth Wells, Strand Street
Cut Bench MarkBuilth Wells, 16 Market Street
UnknownHay-on-Wye, Heol Y Dwr
UnknownHay-on-Wye, St Mary's Road
Cut Bench Mark with BoltHay-on-Wye, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench MarkHay-on-Wye, George House
Flush Bracket2698 - Hay, Crown Hotel
Cut Bench MarkHay-on-Wye, Old Police Station
Cut Bench MarkHay-on-Wye, St John's Chapel
Cut Bench MarkHay-on-Wye, NatWest Bank
March 2008
PivotGreat Missenden, St Peter & St Paul's Church
Cut Bench MarkGreat Missenden, Whitefield Lane
Cut Bench MarkGreat Missenden, High Street
February 2008
Cut Bench MarkSouth Moreton, Railway Bridge
DestroyedLockinge, Drain Surround
Cut Bench MarkArdington, Orpwood's Barn
Cut Bench MarkArdington, Old School
Cut Bench MarkLockinge, School Road
Cut Bench MarkEdinburgh, University Engineering Building
Cut Bench MarkEdinburgh, University Zoology Building
Flush BracketWestminster, Elizabeth Tower
Cut Bench MarkWestminster, Charing Cross Pier
Cut Bench MarkWestminster, Hungerford Bridge
Cut Bench MarkWestminster, Bazalgette Memorial
Cut Bench MarkWestminster, Whitehall Stairs
Cut Bench MarkLambeth, County Hall Steps
January 2008
Destroyed2763 - Knockin, Bridge
Destroyed2764 - Pentre-clem
UnknownG3295 - Knockin Heath
UnknownKnockin, B4398
Cut Bench MarkKnockin, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench MarkKnockin, Ivy House Farm
DestroyedOswestry, Beatrice Street
UnknownOswestry, 25 Beatrice Street
UnknownOswestry, Christ Church
UnknownOswestry, Horse Market
Triangulation PillarS3121 - Oswestry Station
Cut Bench MarkOswestry, Ardmillan Lane
Flush Bracket2646 - Oswestry, St Oswald's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltOswestry, St Oswald's Church
Cut Bench MarkOswestry, 8-10 Cross Street
RivetOswestry, 23 Bailey Street
Cut Bench MarkOswestry, 15 Albion Hill
Flush BracketG3033 - Oswestry, Railway Inn
Cut Bench MarkOswestry Station
PivotOswestry Golf Club
Cut Bench MarkQueen's Head, Milestone


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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