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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


October 2009
RivetReading, London/Redlands Road
Cut Bench MarkReading, Royal Berkshire Hospital
Cut Bench MarkReading, 20-35 London Road
Cut Bench MarkWinderton, Church Path
RivetRollright Stones
Triangulation PillarS6778 - Great Tew
UnknownArdington, Milestone, Wantage 2
September 2009
DestroyedWest Hendred, Milestone, Wantage 3
Cut Bench MarkMilton Bridge
Cut Bench MarkSteventon, Railway Bridge
RivetEast Hendred, Lud Bridge
Triangulation PillarS6168 - Greenmoor Hill
Cut Bench MarkEmpingham, St Peter's Church
Cut Bench MarkGreat Easton, The Old Chapel
Cut Bench MarkNorth Moreton, The Corner House
UnknownWolvercote, Godstow Bridge
UnknownLongcot, Cleveland Farm
UnknownLongcot, Longcot House
UnknownLongcot, City Bridge
UnknownShrivenham, Bowles's Bridge
Cut Bench MarkUffington, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench MarkCompton Beauchamp, St Swithin's Church
RivetCompton Beauchamp, MS Wantage 8
Cut Bench MarkShrivenham, Compton Bridge
Cut Bench MarkLongcot, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench MarkFernham, Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkDry Sandford, St Helen's Church
Cut Bench MarkDry Sandford, 98 Church Lane
Cut Bench MarkCothill, 195 Cothill Road
Cut Bench MarkCothill, 227 Cothill Road
RivetGozzard's Ford Milestone
Triangulation PillarS6764 - West Farm
DestroyedL14 - Wimbledon, Somerset Road
August 2009
UnknownCromer, Holt Road
UnknownCromer, West Parade
DestroyedCromer, Pier, Lifeboat Station, Tide Gauge Aux 1
Flush BracketG1241 - Beeston Regis, Abbey Farm
Triangulation PillarS5279 - Beeston Hill
Cut Bench MarkCromer, St Peter & St Paul's Church (cut)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCromer, St Peter & St Paul's Church (bolt)
Cut Bench MarkCromer, Runton Road PC
Cut Bench MarkCromer, Esplanade
OSBM BoltCromer, Tide Gauge BM
OSBM BoltCromer, Tide Gauge Aux 2
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWest Runton, Holy Trinity Church
Flush BracketS0103 - West Runton
Cut Bench MarkHappisburgh, St Mary's Church
July 2009
Cut Bench MarkBuckland, St George's Road
Cut Bench MarkHatford, St George's Church
June 2009
Cut Bench Mark with BoltNuffield, Holy Trinity Church
Flush BracketG1934 - Wick, Market Place
Cut Bench MarkKeiss, Sinclair's Bay Hotel
May 2009
Cut Bench MarkTobar nan Ceann
Flush Bracket11070 - River Aray Bridge
Cut Bench MarkKendoon Loch
Cut Bench MarkCarlisle, Castle Street
Flush Bracket11748 - Millrigg Farm
Cut Bench MarkKirkby Thore, Meadow Bank
Cut Bench MarkKirkby Thore, Somerset House
RivetGrayrigg Common MS
PivotCross of Greet
Cut Bench MarkEdisford Bridge Inn
Cut Bench Mark with BoltClitheroe, Edisford Bridge
Cut Bench MarkLudlow, Butter Cross
Cut Bench MarkLudlow, The Gate House
RivetKerne Bridge
Triangulation PillarS8142 - Lands End
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSt Ives, St Ia's Church
April 2009
Cut Bench MarkTaynton, St Lawrence's Church
Cut Bench MarkChinnor, Chinnor Hill
UnknownSalisbury, Old Sarum
Cut Bench MarkSalisbury, Parliament Stone
DestroyedSalisbury, Bishop's Walk, Cathedral School
Cut Bench MarkSalisbury, St Mary's Cathedral Wall
Flush Bracket60 - Salisbury, St Mary's Cathedral
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSalisbury, St Mary's Cathedral
Cut Bench MarkCharney Bassett, St Peter's Church
March 2009
Triangulation Pillar11798 - Inkpen
Cut Bench MarkAsthall, The Windmill Carvery
January 2009
Cut Bench MarkLondon, 194 Euston Road
Cut Bench MarkUpton, Down Lane
RivetNorth Leigh, Ashford Bridge
Triangulation PillarS1892 - Britwell Hill


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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