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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


October 2009
Reading, London/Redlands Road
Reading, Royal Berkshire Hospital
Reading, 20-35 London Road
Winderton, Church Path
Rollright Stones
S6778 - Great Tew
Ardington, Milestone, Wantage 2
September 2009
West Hendred, Milestone, Wantage 3
Milton Bridge
Steventon Bridge
East Hendred, Lud Bridge
S6168 - Greenmoor Hill
Empingham, St Peter's Church
Great Easton, The Old Chapel
North Moreton, The Corner House
Wolvercote, Godstow Bridge
Longcot, Cleveland Farm
Longcot, Longcot House
Longcot, City Bridge
Shrivenham, Bowles's Bridge
Uffington, St Mary's Church
Compton Beauchamp, St Swithin's Church
Compton Beauchamp, MS Wantage 8
Shrivenham, Compton Bridge
Longcot, St Mary's Church
Fernham, Railway Bridge
Dry Sandford, St Helen's Church
Dry Sandford, 98 Church Lane
Cothill, 195 Cothill Road
Cothill, 227 Cothill Road
Gozzard's Ford Milestone
S6764 - West Farm
L14 - Wimbledon, Somerset Road
August 2009
Cromer, Holt Road
Cromer, West Parade
Cromer, Pier, Lifeboat Station, Tide Gauge Aux 1
G1241 - Beeston Regis, Abbey Farm
S5279 - Beeston Hill
Cromer, St Peter & St Paul's Church (cut)
Cromer, St Peter & St Paul's Church (bolt)
Cromer, Runton Road PC
Cromer, Esplanade
Cromer, Tide Gauge BM
Cromer, Tide Gauge Aux 2
West Runton, Holy Trinity Church
S0103 - West Runton
Happisburgh, St Mary's Church
July 2009
Buckland, St George's Road
Hatford, St George's Church
June 2009
Nuffield, Holy Trinity Church
G1934 - Wick, Market Place
Keiss, Sinclair's Bay Hotel
May 2009
Tobar nan Ceann
11070 - River Aray Bridge
Kendoon Loch
Carlisle, Castle Street
11748 - Millrigg Farm
Kirkby Thore, Meadow Bank
Kirkby Thore, Somerset House
Grayrigg Common MS
Cross of Greet
Edisford Bridge Inn
Edisford Bridge
Ludlow, Butter Cross
Ludlow, The Gate House
Kerne Bridge
S8142 - Lands End
St Ives, St Ia's Church
April 2009
Taynton, St Lawrence's Church
Chinnor, Chinnor Hill
Salisbury, Old Sarum
Salisbury, Parliament Stone
Salisbury, Bishop's Walk, Cathedral School
Salisbury, St Mary's Cathedral Wall
60 - Salisbury, St Mary's Cathedral
Salisbury, St Mary's Cathedral
Charney Bassett, St Peter's Church
March 2009
11798 - Inkpen
Asthall, The Windmill Carvery
January 2009
London, 194 Euston Road
Upton, Down Lane
North Leigh, Ashford Bridge
S1892 - Britwell Hill


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush Bracket(188)
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Triangulation Pillar(93)
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