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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


RivetAbingdon Lock
RivetAston Tirrold, St Michael's Church
RivetBangor, Garth Gardens
RivetBangor, High Street / Ffordd Pen Y Bryn
RivetBangor, Neuadd John Morris Jones
RivetBarry, Plymouth Road Railway Bridge
RivetBarry, Promenade Sea Wall
RivetBeal, Lindisfarne Causeway, Refuge
RivetBeal, Lindisfarne Causeway, South Low
RivetBenson Waterfront
RivetBerinsfield, Culvert NE Side A4074
RivetBexhill-on-Sea, De La Warr Parade (1)
RivetBexhill-on-Sea, De La Warr Parade (3)
RivetBlack Down, NW of Hardy Monument
RivetBlewbury, Wantage 9 Milestone
RivetBourton-on-the-Water, St Lawrence's church
RivetBuilth Wells, The Strand
RivetBuilth Wells, Wye Bridge
RivetBushy Park, Diana Fountain
RivetBwlch, War Memorial
RivetCaernarfon, Caernarfon Marina
RivetCaernarfon, Castell Caernarfon, Twr Du
RivetCaernarfon, Doc Fictoria, Pier Entrance
RivetCaernarfon, Victoria Dock
RivetCardiff, National Assembly Quay
RivetCardiff, Pantbach Road Railway Bridge
RivetChalgrove, St Mary's Church
RivetCheesewring Quarry #1
RivetCheesewring Quarry #2
RivetCheesewring Quarry #3
RivetClitheroe, Castle Wall
RivetCompton Beauchamp, MS Wantage 8
RivetConnah's Quay, Dock Wall
RivetCulham, Andersey Island Causeway
RivetDidcot, A4130
RivetDover Castle, Church of St Mary in Castro
RivetDover, Castle Hill Road
RivetDungeness, Back Straight #1
RivetEast Grimstead, Holy Trinity Church
RivetEast Hanney, Milestone, Wantage 3
RivetEast Hendred, Lud Bridge
RivetEastbourne, Grand Parade Steps
RivetEdinburgh, 1 Grosvenor Crescent
RivetEdinburgh, 25 Palmerston Place
RivetEdinburgh, 27 Glencairn Crescent
RivetEdinburgh, Pinkhill Station
RivetEdinburgh, Rosebery Crescent / Lansdowne Crescent
RivetEgloskerry, Milestone, Launceston 4
RivetFarmoor, Pinkhill Lock
RivetFelixstowe, Undercliff Road East
RivetFrog Hole
RivetGloucester, Baker's Quay
RivetGoosey, Milestone, Wantage 4
RivetGoosey, Stutfield Bridge
RivetGoring-by-Sea, Marine Crescent
RivetGozzard's Ford Milestone
RivetGrayrigg Common MS
RivetGrove Park, Grove Park Bridge
RivetHampton Court, Lion Gates
RivetHardwick Farm
RivetHaringey, Finsbury Park, Shelter
RivetHarwell, High Street
RivetHarwell, The White Hart
RivetHepburn, Roadside Rock
RivetHoly Island, Straight Lonnen
RivetKerne Bridge
RivetKew Gardens, King William's Temple
RivetKingston, Milestone, Wareham 7
RivetLambeth, River Thames Parapet
RivetLangore, Milestone, Launceston 3
RivetLewes, Law Courts
RivetLittle Haseley, Stoney Lane
RivetLittle Wittenham, Day's Lock
RivetLoughborough, Outwoods Drive
RivetLower Radley
RivetLower Radley, Thames Path
RivetMinions, Gonamena Incline
RivetMinions, Grasmere Lane
RivetMursley, Station Road Railway Bridge
RivetNorth Leigh, Ashford Bridge
RivetNorth Stoke, Cook Lane
RivetOkehampton, Station Road Fountain
RivetOrford Ness, Bridge Foundation
RivetOrford Ness, Lighthouse
RivetOswestry, 23 Bailey Street
RivetOxford, Christ Church College, Main Entrance
RivetOxford, Devil's Backbone Bridge
RivetPenmaenmawr, Maen Alaw, Bangor Road
RivetPlymouth, 246 Cecil Street
RivetPlymouth, Alexandra Park Entrance
RivetPlymouth, Citadel Road opp. 181
RivetPlymouth, Hoe Promenade
RivetPlymouth, Royal Navy Avenue opp. St Thomas' Church
RivetPortand, Upper Incline Bridge
RivetPortland, King Barrow Quarries
RivetPortsmouth, Museum Road
RivetPrestatyn, 3-5 Victoria Road
RivetReading, London/Redlands Road
RivetRhos-on-Sea, Church Road
RivetRhos-on-Sea, Marine Drive opp. Foreshore Park
RivetRhuddlan, Banquet House
RivetRhôs Lligwy, Pont-y-felin
RivetRollright Stones
RivetRoyal Leamington Spa, 168 Parade
RivetSandwick, Sea View
RivetScarborough, Albert Road Path Junction
RivetScarborough, Foreshore Road opp. PC
RivetScarborough, Queens Parade
RivetScarborough, Scarborough Pier Lighthouse
RivetScarborough, The Holms
RivetScarborough, The Holms, Upper Steps
RivetScarborough, Town Hall, Garden Wall
RivetSeahouses, Neptune Fish Restaurant
RivetShillingford Bridge, North End
RivetSlingsby, Wath Beck Bridge
RivetSouth Hinksey, Hinskey Stream Footbridge
RivetSouthsea, South Parade / The Dell
RivetSt Neots, Eaton Socon Lock
RivetStenness, Burn of Villas
RivetStreatley, Milestone, Oxford 19
RivetSutton Courtenay, Appleford Sidings
RivetSwanage, Jetty
RivetSwyncombe, Icknield Field
RivetWalberswick, Jetty
RivetWallingford, Bradford's Bridge
RivetWalsall, Walsall Lock No 2
RivetWalsall, Walsall Lock No 3
RivetWestminster, Exhibition Road
RivetWestminster, Kensington Gardens, Albert Memorial
RivetWhitby, Lifeboat Museum
RivetWhitby, Quayside
RivetWhitby, West Pier
RivetWinchcombe, Harvey's Lane
RivetWinshields, Winshield Crags #1
RivetWinshields, Winshield Crags #2
RivetWinshields, Winshield Crags #3
RivetWinshields, Winshield Crags #4
RivetWinshields, Winshield Crags #5
RivetWolverley, Wolverley Court Lock
RivetYork, All Saints', Pavement Church
RivetYork, Castle Mills Bridge
RivetYork, Duncombe Place


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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