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Explanation of Types
These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.
One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes.
Reading, Greyfriar's Church
Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol.
Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark
By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge.
Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt
Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers.
Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks.
Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot.
Fundamental Bench Mark
These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling.
Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side.
Edinburgh, Holyrood Palace
Haringey, Finsbury Park, Shelter
Newbury, Newtown Road Cemetery (N)
Newbury, Newtown Road Cemetery Lodge
Newbury, Newtown Road Cemetery (S)
Newbury, Andover Road PC
London, St Magnus the Martyr Church
London, Custom House (NW)
London, Custom House (SE)
London, 61 Mark Lane
London, The Hung Drawn and Quartered
London, St Dunstan-in-the-East Church
London, St Margaret Pattens Church
London, St Mary-at-Hill Church
London, The Monument
London, St Edmund the King Church
London, 82 King William Street
London, 13 Sherborne Lane
London, St Mary Woolnoth Church
London, Bank of England
London, 1 Queen Victoria Street
London, St Stephen Walbrook Church
London, Dowgate Hill
London, St Michael Paternoster Royal Church
Bognor Regis, 1 Crescent Road
Bognor Regis, 14 Longford Road
Bognor Regis, 99/101 Longford Road
Bognor Regis, 72 Longford Road
S6644 - Axbridge, Town Hall
Waterperry, 23 Waterperry
Culham, Andersey Island Causeway
Sandford-on-Thames, Sandford Lock House
Uffington, South View Farm
Uffington, Woolstone Road
Uffington, Broad Way
Newbury, A339 Railway Bridge
Newbury, Railway Station
Newbury, 27 Argyle Road
Newbury, City Mission Hall
Radley, Radley Road Overbridge
Radley, Goose Acre Farm
Paignton, Victoria Park Railway Bridge
Paignton, 43 Victoria Street
Paignton, The Picture House
Gloucester, 37 Westgate Street
Gloucester, Holy Trinity Cathedral, SE Angle
Oxford, Radcliffe Science Library
Burton Bradstock, Old Coastguard Station
Burton Bradstock, Burton Common
Burton Bradstock, Hive Beach
Weymouth, 95 Bowleaze Coveway
Weymouth, 8 Custom House Quay
Weymouth, New Street
Weymouth, Tide Gauge Aux 4
Weymouth, Tide Gauge Aux 3
Weymouth, Tide Gauge Aux 2
Weymouth, Tide Gauge Aux 1
Weymouth, 6 The Esplanade
Weymouth, Edward Court
Weymouth, Alexandra Gardens
Weymouth, Cutter Hotel
Weymouth, Maiden Street
Weymouth, 20 Helen Lane
Weymouth, 61 St Thomas Street
Weymouth, 65 St Thomas Street
Weymouth, 8-9 Bond Street
Weymouth, 104C St Mary Street
Weymouth, Gloucester Hotel
Christchurch, Red House Museum
Christchurch, 10 Quay Road
Christchurch, Place Mill
Christchurch, Priory Church of the Holy Trinity
Hengistbury Head, PC Block No. 1
Hengistbury Head, The Black House
Hengistbury Head, PC Block No. 5
Black Down, Hardy Coppice
Black Down, Hardy Monument
Black Down, NW of Hardy Monument
Abbotsbury, Gorwell Farm
West Bay, Methodist Church
West Bay, Pumping Station
12074 - West Bay
West Bay, Harbour Bridge
West Bay, First Cliff Walk / West Cliff Road
Bere Regis, Old Townsend Farmhouse
Newark-on-Trent, Northgate Railway Station
Reading, London Road / Liverpool Road
Reading, Wokingham Road / Bulmershe Road
Basingstoke, Bunnian Place Railway Bridge
Newbury, 25 Buckingham Road
Newbury, Andover Road / Wendan Road
Chilton, All Saints' Church
Upton, St Mary's Church
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Explanation of Types
Cut Bench Mark
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt