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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


October 2020
Cut Bench MarkPortsmouth, Royal Garrison Church
September 2020
Cut Bench MarkChalgrove, The Old Vicarage
Flush Bracket2011 - Tetsworth, 116 High Street
Triangulation PillarS1854 - Clare Hill
August 2020
Cut Bench MarkWinslow, 66 High Street
Cut Bench MarkWinslow, 17 Sheep Street
UnknownWinslow, 2 Western Lane
UnknownWinslow, 25 Horn Street
Cut Bench MarkWinslow, Horn Street
RivetMursley, Station Road Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkMalton, The Mount Hotel
Cut Bench MarkMalton, Horsemarket Road
DestroyedFiley, Deepdene
Cut Bench MarkFiley, St Mary's Church
DestroyedFiley, Crescent Hill
Cut Bench MarkFiley, 3 Crescent Hill
Cut Bench MarkFiley, Downcliffe House Hotel
Cut Bench MarkFiley, 13 The Beach
Cut Bench MarkFiley, Ravine Road Public Toilets
Cut Bench Mark with BoltFiley, St Oswald's Church
DestroyedYork, 15 Clifford Street
Cut Bench MarkYork, The Law Courts
UnknownYork, 9 Tower Place
Cut Bench MarkYork, 14 Coney Street
UnknownYork, St Wilfred's School
Cut Bench MarkYork, St John University
Cut Bench MarkYork, The Retreat #1
DestroyedYork, Siward's How Water Tower
Cut Bench MarkYork, 109 Heslington Road
Cut Bench MarkYork, Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall Car Park
Cut Bench MarkYork, Vanbrugh College
Cut Bench MarkYork, Langwith College Cycle Shed
Cut Bench MarkYork, Langwith College
UnknownYork, Derwent College
Cut Bench MarkHeslington, 4 Main Street
UnknownHeslington, Lord Deramore's Primary School
Cut Bench MarkHeslington, Heslington Church
Cut Bench MarkRobin Hood's Bay, The Wayfarer
Cut Bench MarkRobin Hood's Bay, Way Foot
DestroyedRobin Hood's Bay, The Bay Hotel
Cut Bench MarkRobin Hood's Bay, King's Beck Bridge
Cut Bench MarkRobin Hood's Bay, 25 New Road
UnknownWhitby, Tide Gauge BM
UnknownWhitby, Promontory Point
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWhitby, West Pier Lighthouse
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, West Pier NE
RivetWhitby, West Pier
UnknownWhitby, Sea Wall
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, West Pier SW
RivetWhitby, Lifeboat Museum
RivetWhitby, Quayside
DestroyedWhitby, Pier Road
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, St Anns Lane
OSBM BoltWhitby, Whitby Bridge
UnknownWhitby, The Dolphin
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, 161 Church Street
OSBM BoltWhitby, 84 Church Street
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Old Town Hall
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, New Way Ghaut
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Duke of York
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, East Pier
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, East Pier SE
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, 1 Church Lane
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Church Lane #1
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Church Lane #2
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Cemetery Wall
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWhitby, St Mary's Church
Flush BracketG4805 - Whitby, Green Lane Top
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Aelfleda Terrace
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Back Lane
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Youth Hostel
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Church Lane #3
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Abbey Lane Electricity Substation
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Abbey Lane #2
Cut Bench MarkWhitby, Abbey Lane #1
Cut Bench MarkWharram, Station House
DestroyedWharram, Station Road Railway Bridge
UnknownWharram Percy, Deep Dale #2
DestroyedWharram Percy, Deep Dale #1
Cut Bench MarkWharram Percy, St Martin's Church
Cut Bench MarkWharram Percy, Labourers' Cottages
UnknownYork, Leeman Road
Cut Bench MarkYork, Leeman Road Railway Bridge
Cut Bench MarkYork, Bullnose Building
DestroyedScarborough, Marine Drive Shelter
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Old Seat Support
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Marine Drive Wall
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Marine Drive Wall
DestroyedScarborough, Royal Albert Drive Subway
RivetScarborough, The Holms
UnknownScarborough, Royal Albert Drive
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Royal Albert Drive
RivetScarborough, Albert Road Path Junction
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Albert Road
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Albert Road
RivetScarborough, Queens Parade
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, 40 North Marine Road
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, 5 Hope Street
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Scarborough Fire Station
DestroyedScarborough, 66 St. Thomas Street
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, The Sun Inn
RivetScarborough, Town Hall, Garden Wall
UnknownScarborough, St. Nicholas Street
RivetScarborough, Foreshore Road opp. PC
DestroyedScarborough, Royal Northern Sea Bathing Infirmary
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, 19 Foreshore Road
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Lord Nelson Hotel
Flush BracketS0297 - Scarborough, West Pier
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, St Thomas's Church
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, 20 Sandside
RivetScarborough, Scarborough Pier Lighthouse
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, End of East Pier
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, East Pier Wall
DestroyedScarborough, North End of East Pier
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Castle Wall #1
UnknownScarborough, Castle Wall #2
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Castle Wall #3
DestroyedScarborough, Castle Cliff, Signal Station
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, The Master Gunner's House
UnknownScarborough, Castle Entrance Arch
Cut Bench MarkScarborough, Castle Barbican Gate
RivetScarborough, The Holms, Upper Steps
UnknownScarborough, The Holms, Lower Steps
Cut Bench MarkGreat Barugh, Barugh Bridge
Cut Bench MarkCastle Howard, Gatehouse
Cut Bench MarkMalton, Railway Bridge
Cut Bench Mark with BoltMalton, St Leonard's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltMalton, St Michael's Church
Cut Bench MarkMalton, Railway Street
Flush BracketS0276 - Malton, 1 Railway Street
Cut Bench MarkYork, Scarborough Bridge
DestroyedYork, Museum Gardens, Observatory
Cut Bench MarkYork, Marygate Landing Tower
Cut Bench MarkYork, Dame Judi Dench Walk
Cut Bench MarkYork, The Waterfront
Cut Bench MarkYork, 5 South Esplanade
Cut Bench MarkYork, Skeldergate Bridge
Cut Bench MarkYork, Skeldergate Bridge
RivetYork, Castle Mills Bridge
Cut Bench MarkYork, Fishergate Tower
Cut Bench MarkYork, The Red Tower
Cut Bench MarkYork, 5-17 Rosemary Place
Cut Bench MarkYork, Navigation Road
DestroyedYork, Foss Islands Road
DestroyedYork, Layerthorpe Bridge
Cut Bench Mark with BoltYork, Monk Bar
RivetYork, All Saints', Pavement Church
Cut Bench MarkYork, 1 Nessgate
Cut Bench MarkYork, The Royal York Hotel
Cut Bench MarkSlingsby, Totten Lane
DestroyedSlingsby, Totten Bridge
RivetSlingsby, Wath Beck Bridge
Cut Bench MarkSlingsby, All Saints' Church
Cut Bench MarkSlingsby, West Flatts Cottage
Cut Bench MarkSlingsby, 11 Balksyde
Cut Bench MarkSlingsby, Railway Street
Cut Bench MarkPortsmouth, The Pembroke
Cut Bench MarkPortsmouth, The Cathedral Church of St Thomas of Canterbury
Cut Bench MarkPortsmouth, Edinburgh Road
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, 70 Elm Grove
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, Milford Lodge
DestroyedSouthsea, Grove Road South
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, 110-114 Palmerston Road
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, Avenue De Caen
Cut Bench MarkSouthsea, Seafront D-Day Car Park
DestroyedSouthsea, Clarence Esplanade
July 2020
Cut Bench MarkMinety, Old Ravensroost Farm
UnknownCumnor, St Michael's Church
Cut Bench MarkBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Didcot Road
Cut Bench MarkChildrey, Pump House, Pulpit Hill
June 2020
Cut Bench MarkMackney, 2 The Malthouse
Cut Bench MarkMackney, Small's Farm
UnknownBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Spring Cottage
Cut Bench MarkBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Red Lion
DestroyedBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Home Farm
Cut Bench MarkBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, St Agatha's Church
Cut Bench MarkWoodlands St Mary, Well Cottage
Cut Bench MarkBroadway, Buckle Street / Fish Hill
DestroyedBroadway, Tower Visitor Entrance
Cut Bench MarkBroadway, Broadway Tower
UnknownBroadway, The Fish Inn
DestroyedUffington, Station Bridge
Flush Bracket11051 - Little Faringdon, River Leach Bridge
Flush BracketG3655 - Lechlade-on-Thames, Trout Inn
PivotEaton Hastings, St Michael's Church
Cut Bench MarkBuscot Park, Entrance Gatepost
Cut Bench MarkHorton-cum-Studley, St Barnabas' Church
Triangulation PillarS7198 - Horton
DestroyedOtmoor, Drain Bridge
Cut Bench MarkNoke, St Giles' Parish Church Porch
May 2020
Cut Bench MarkEmmer Green, 217 Peppard Road
Cut Bench MarkShiplake, Plowden Arms
Cut Bench MarkWoolley, Mitchell Road
Cut Bench MarkBagnor, Bagnor Bridge
Cut Bench MarkBagnor, Brook House
RivetChalgrove, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench MarkWatlington, Icknield House
UnknownShirburn, Icknield Way, Trough
UnknownShirburn, Icknield Way, Post
Triangulation PillarS2025 - Shirburn Hill
Cut Bench MarkPyrton, Village Hall
Cut Bench MarkPyrton, The Old Forge
RivetLittle Haseley, Stoney Lane
UnknownLittle Haseley, Standhill Lane
Cut Bench MarkStadhampton, Corner House
Cut Bench MarkWest Ilsley, Windmill Down
Cut Bench MarkEast Ilsley, Woolvers Road
Cut Bench MarkStanmore, South Stanmore Farm
UnknownEast Ilsley, Halfpenny Catch Lane
UnknownCompton, Green Hams Lane
Cut Bench MarkCompton, Warnham Lane
UnknownEast Ilsley, Churn Road
April 2020
Cut Bench MarkNoke, St Giles' Parish Church
Cut Bench MarkHampton Gay, Church of St Giles
Cut Bench MarkGosford, Water Eaton Bridge
Cut Bench MarkStreatley, Milestone, Oxford 19
RivetStreatley, Milestone, Oxford 19
Triangulation PillarS6185 - Birch Heath
February 2020
Cut Bench MarkMaidenhead, 18 Harrow Lane
Cut Bench MarkWargrave, Loddon Drive
DestroyedWargrave, Railway Station
Cut Bench MarkWoodstock, Methodist Church
Cut Bench MarkWoodstock, The Crown Inn
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWoodstock, St Mary Magdalene Church


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

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By Type

Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(247)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(16)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1987)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(134)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(99)
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