© John Talbot. No images may be copied, downloaded or reproduced without prior written permission.

Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


July 2020
Cut Bench MarkBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Didcot Road
Cut Bench MarkChildrey, Pump House, Pulpit Hill
June 2020
Cut Bench MarkMackney, 2 The Malthouse
Cut Bench MarkMackney, Small's Farm
UnknownBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Spring Cottage
Cut Bench MarkBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Red Lion
DestroyedBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, Home Farm
Cut Bench MarkBrightwell-cum-Sotwell, St Agatha's Church
Cut Bench MarkWoodlands St Mary, Well Cottage
Cut Bench MarkBroadway, Buckle Street / Fish Hill
DestroyedBroadway, Tower Visitor Entrance
Cut Bench MarkBroadway, Broadway Tower
UnknownBroadway, The Fish Inn
DestroyedUffington, Station Bridge
Flush Bracket11051 - Little Faringdon, River Leach Bridge
Flush BracketG3655 - Lechlade-on-Thames, Trout Inn
PivotEaton Hastings, St Michael's Church
Cut Bench MarkBuscot Park, Entrance Gatepost
Cut Bench MarkHorton-cum-Studley, St Barnabas' Church
Triangulation PillarS7198 - Horton
DestroyedOtmoor, Drain Bridge
Cut Bench MarkNoke, St Giles' Parish Church Porch
May 2020
Cut Bench MarkEmmer Green, 217 Peppard Road
Cut Bench MarkShiplake, Plowden Arms
Cut Bench MarkWoolley, Mitchell Road
Cut Bench MarkBagnor, Bagnor Bridge
Cut Bench MarkBagnor, Brook House
RivetChalgrove, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench MarkWatlington, Icknield House
UnknownShirburn, Icknield Way, Trough
UnknownShirburn, Icknield Way, Post
Triangulation PillarS2025 - Shirburn Hill
Cut Bench MarkPyrton, Village Hall
Cut Bench MarkPyrton, The Old Forge
RivetLittle Haseley, Stoney Lane
UnknownLittle Haseley, Standhill Lane
Cut Bench MarkStadhampton, Corner House
Cut Bench MarkWest Ilsley, Windmill Down
Cut Bench MarkEast Ilsley, Woolvers Road
Cut Bench MarkStanmore, South Stanmore Farm
UnknownEast Ilsley, Halfpenny Catch Lane
UnknownCompton, Green Hams Lane
Cut Bench MarkCompton, Warnham Lane
UnknownEast Ilsley, Churn Road
April 2020
Cut Bench MarkNoke, St Giles' Parish Church
Cut Bench MarkHampton Gay, Church of St Giles
Cut Bench MarkGosford, Water Eaton Bridge
Cut Bench MarkStreatley, Milestone, Oxford 19
RivetStreatley, Milestone, Oxford 19
Triangulation PillarS6185 - Birch Heath
February 2020
Cut Bench MarkMaidenhead, 18 Harrow Lane
Cut Bench MarkWargrave, Loddon Drive
DestroyedWargrave, Railway Station
Cut Bench MarkWoodstock, Methodist Church
Cut Bench MarkWoodstock, The Crown Inn
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWoodstock, St Mary Magdalene Church


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

Show Help

By Type

Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(214)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(11)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1567)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(101)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(96)
 Show All(2779)

By Year

2020 (56)
2019 (200)
2018 (408)
2017 (252)
2016 (385)
2015 (409)
2014 (256)
2013 (120)
2012 (21)
2011 (78)
2010 (54)
2009 (84)
2008 (79)
2007 (248)
2006 (16)
2005 (39)
2004 (72)
2003 (2)