© John Talbot. No images may be copied, downloaded or reproduced without prior written permission.

Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland


DestroyedAbingdon, 37 West St Helen Street
DestroyedAlnmouth, Marden House
DestroyedAlnwick, 22 Walkergate
DestroyedAlnwick, Alnwick Castle
DestroyedAlnwick, White Swan Hotel
DestroyedAppleby, 6 Colby Lane
DestroyedAppleby, Chapel Street
DestroyedAppleby, Long Marton Road Bridge
DestroyedAppleby, Low Cross
DestroyedAppleby, Shaws Wiend
DestroyedAppleby, St Lawrence's Church
DestroyedBagillt, Hall, High Street
DestroyedBagillt, Works Building, High Street
DestroyedBarry, 12 Friar's Road
DestroyedBarry, Ambulance Room
DestroyedBarry, Friar's Point Café
DestroyedBarry, Rear Access Lane
DestroyedBath, Triangle Court
DestroyedBeadnell, Benthall Farm
DestroyedBeal, Holy Island Road
DestroyedBeal, Lindisfarne Causeway, Bridge
DestroyedBentley, St Paul's Primary School
DestroyedBerinsfield, Fane Drive
DestroyedBexhill-on-Sea, Channel View
DestroyedBexhill-on-Sea, Galley Hill
DestroyedBirmingham, 1 Oxford Street
DestroyedBirmingham, 104 Liverpool Street
DestroyedBirmingham, 125 Digbeth
DestroyedBirmingham, 174 Charles Henry Street
DestroyedBirmingham, 196 Alcester Street
DestroyedBirmingham, 221 Cheapside
DestroyedBirmingham, 61 Moseley Street
DestroyedBirmingham, Bradford Court
DestroyedBirmingham, St Martin's Church
DestroyedBirmingham, St Martins Circus
DestroyedBletchley Park, H Block
DestroyedBridgnorth, New Road Footbridge
DestroyedBurcot, Abingdon Road
DestroyedCaernarfon, 26 Cei Banc
DestroyedCaernarfon, 4 Stryd Pedwar a Chwech
DestroyedCastle Acre, 65 Bailey Street
DestroyedCemaes, 1 Bridge Street
DestroyedCemaes, Village Hall
DestroyedChester, City Road
DestroyedChester, Lead Works
DestroyedChipping Norton, Allotments
DestroyedChipping Norton, Distons Lane
DestroyedChipping Norton, The Red Lion
DestroyedChipping Norton, Town Hall
DestroyedClifton Hampden, Furze Brake (East)
DestroyedClifton Hampden, Furze Brake (West)
DestroyedConnah's Quay, Wall Opposite Playground
DestroyedCovehithe, Jasmine Cottage
DestroyedCrewe, Station Building
DestroyedCromer, Pier, Lifeboat Station, Tide Gauge Aux 1
DestroyedCulham, 12 Tollgate Road
DestroyedCulham, Sutton Bridge
DestroyedDudley, Hide, Skin & Fat Works
DestroyedDulas, Penrhyn Farm
DestroyedDulas, Tan Y Banc
DestroyedDyserth, Gwalia House
DestroyedEastleigh, Leigh Road PC
DestroyedEdinburgh, 107 George Street
DestroyedEdinburgh, 12 Gayfield Square
DestroyedEdinburgh, 27 Chambers Street
DestroyedEdinburgh, 40 Broughton Street
DestroyedEdinburgh, Bedlam Theatre
DestroyedEwelme, Down Farm
DestroyedEwelme, Huntingland
DestroyedEwelme, Icknield Way
DestroyedEwelme, Warren Bottom
DestroyedFelixstowe, 17-18 Sea Road
DestroyedFelixstowe, Herman de Stern Hospital
DestroyedFelixstowe, Oakleigh Court
DestroyedFelixstowe, Promenade, Pier Arcade
DestroyedFelixstowe, Sea Road opp. Beach Station Road
DestroyedFelixstowe, Sea Road opp. St Edmunds Road
DestroyedFelixstowe, Town Hall
DestroyedFramlingham, 17 Castle Street
DestroyedGloucester, Westgate Street Electricity Substation
DestroyedGreenfield, 8 Sycamore Terrace
DestroyedGreenfield, 9 Greenfield Road
DestroyedGreenfield, Maes-y-Dyffryn
DestroyedGuildford, University of Surrey, Wates House
DestroyedHailes Church
DestroyedHailey, Letterbox
DestroyedHalesworth, The Old Hawk
DestroyedHepburn, Roadside Wall
DestroyedHolywell, Branch Line Gatepost
DestroyedHunstanton, 1 Clarence Road
DestroyedHunstanton, Rhianva Court
DestroyedKeynsham, Victoria Methodist Church
DestroyedKidderminster, 1 Comberton Road
DestroyedKidderminster, 1 Vicar Street
DestroyedKidderminster, Brintons Carpet Factory
DestroyedKidderminster, Clensmore Mills
DestroyedKidderminster, Stourvale Works (NE)
DestroyedKidderminster, Stourvale Works (SW)
DestroyedKidderminster, The Sling
DestroyedKing's Lynn, Mill Fleet
DestroyedKing's Lynn, Stonegate Street
DestroyedKinmel Bay, Golden Sands Holiday Park
DestroyedKinmel Bay, Water Works
DestroyedKnighton Barn
DestroyedLeicester, 1 Newarke Street
DestroyedLeicester, Library & General News Room
DestroyedLeyburn, West Cottage
DestroyedLittle Wittenham, Lock Keeper's House
DestroyedLlanddulas, Erw Wen
DestroyedLockinge, Drain Surround
DestroyedLoughborough University, Stewart Mason Building
DestroyedLoughborough, 136 Derby Road
DestroyedLoughborough, 21 Duke Street
DestroyedLoughborough, 26 Knightthorpe Road
DestroyedLoughborough, 290 Forest Road
DestroyedLoughborough, 77 Meadow Lane
DestroyedLoughborough, 87 Lower Cambridge Street
DestroyedLoughborough, Biggin Street
DestroyedLoughborough, Derby Road Works
DestroyedLoughborough, Drill Hall
DestroyedLoughborough, Tatmarsh
DestroyedLoughton, Milestone, London 48
DestroyedLower Basildon, Railway Bridge
DestroyedLowestoft, Esplanade opp. Parade Road South
DestroyedLowestoft, Ness Point
DestroyedMalmesbury, St John's Bridge
DestroyedMapledurham, Old Post Office
DestroyedMortehoe, Hillcrest
DestroyedNavestock Side, 1 Snakes Hill
DestroyedNettlebed, Windmill
DestroyedNewbury, 32/33 Berkeley Road
DestroyedNewbury, 78 Northbrook Street
DestroyedNewbury, Bartholomew Street
DestroyedNewbury, Blackboys Overbridge
DestroyedNewbury, Engineering Works, Berkeley Road
DestroyedOkehampton, Heathfield House
DestroyedOld Colwyn, Beach Road Viaduct
DestroyedOld Colwyn, Limehurst, Queens Road
DestroyedOreston, Lower Saltram
DestroyedOrford, Orford Quay
DestroyedOrford, Pinney's, Quay Street
DestroyedOswestry, Beatrice Street
DestroyedOxford Stadium, Sandy Lane
DestroyedOxford, 25 Windmill Road
DestroyedOxford, 270 Marlborough Road
DestroyedOxford, Abingdon Road
DestroyedOxford, Abingdon Road Letterbox
DestroyedOxford, Dorset House
DestroyedOxford, Eastwyke Bridge
DestroyedOxford, Military Barracks, New Road
DestroyedOxford, Old Road Nurses Home
DestroyedOxford, Osney Bridge
DestroyedOxford, Railway Hotel
DestroyedOxford, Red Bridge
DestroyedOxford, Windmill Road Letterbox
DestroyedPevensey Bay, Richmond Road
DestroyedPitsford, Grange Lane Carpark
DestroyedPlymouth, 1 Clare Place
DestroyedPlymouth, 1 Lower Knolly's Terrace
DestroyedPlymouth, 11 Wyndham Street West
DestroyedPlymouth, 117 Bridwell Road
DestroyedPlymouth, 12-14 Octagon Street
DestroyedPlymouth, 17 Rodney Street
DestroyedPlymouth, 1A Restormel Terrace
DestroyedPlymouth, 38/39 Notte Street
DestroyedPlymouth, 4 York Road
DestroyedPlymouth, 40 Bridwell Road
DestroyedPlymouth, 46 Beatrice Avenue
DestroyedPlymouth, 6 Eliot Street
DestroyedPlymouth, 63-64 Notte Street
DestroyedPlymouth, All Saints' Church
DestroyedPlymouth, Archer Place
DestroyedPlymouth, Duke of Somerset
DestroyedPlymouth, East Quay Dock Office
DestroyedPlymouth, Harbour Avenue
DestroyedPlymouth, Hastings Terrace
DestroyedPlymouth, Hawkers Avenue
DestroyedPlymouth, Lockyers Quay
DestroyedPlymouth, Millbay Docks
DestroyedPlymouth, Millbay Station
DestroyedPlymouth, Notre Dame Convent High School
DestroyedPlymouth, Oxford Street Primary School
DestroyedPlymouth, Richmond Walk, Mayflower Marina
DestroyedPlymouth, Rock Cottage
DestroyedPlymouth, St Barnabas Church
DestroyedPlymouth, St Philip's Church
DestroyedPlymouth, Sutton Road / Marrowbone Slip
DestroyedPlymouth, Weston Mill Cemetery Entrance
DestroyedPoole, 5 The Quay
DestroyedPortsmouth, 24 Butcher Street
DestroyedPortsmouth, Historic Dockyard, Building 1/10
DestroyedPortsmouth, Historic Dockyard, Storehouse 9
DestroyedPrestatyn, 20 Marine Road
DestroyedPreston Crowmarsh, A4074
DestroyedPreston Crowmarsh, Monks Close
DestroyedPrestonpans, 225 High Street
DestroyedPrestonpans, Miners Welfare Institute
DestroyedReading, 127 Amity Road
DestroyedReading, 2 Woodstock Street
DestroyedReading, 31 Cumberland Road
DestroyedReading, Orts Road
DestroyedReading, Oxford Road
DestroyedRhos-on-Sea, 57 Everard Road
DestroyedRhos-on-Sea, Depot, Colwyn Avenue
DestroyedRhos-on-Sea, Ice Cream Parlour
DestroyedRhos-on-Sea, Marine Drive/Trillo Avenue Junction
DestroyedRhos-on-Sea, Tan-Y-Bryn/Rhos Road Junction
DestroyedRhos-on-Sea, Water Trough, West Promenade
DestroyedRhuddlan, Abergele Road Railway Bridge
DestroyedRoyal Leamington Spa, All Saints' Church
DestroyedSalisbury, 138 Fisherton Street
DestroyedSalisbury, 40 New Canal
DestroyedSalisbury, Bishop's Walk, Cathedral School
DestroyedSalisbury, Dews Road Factory
DestroyedSandwick, Voydale
DestroyedSandy, The Lodge
DestroyedSandycroft, Broughton Brook Bridge (SE)
DestroyedSaxmundham, 2 High Street
DestroyedShotton, County Infants School (SW)
DestroyedSouth Moreton, Sands Road Railway Bridge
DestroyedSouthampton, 19-21 High Street
DestroyedSouthampton, 66 High Street
DestroyedSouthampton, Alfred Marks Bureau
DestroyedSouthampton, Back of the Walls
DestroyedSouthampton, East Park
DestroyedSouthampton, Electricity Board Depot
DestroyedSouthampton, Orchard Place
DestroyedSouthampton, Pirelli Cable Works (N)
DestroyedSouthampton, Pirelli Cable Works (S)
DestroyedSouthampton, The Sun Hotel
DestroyedSouthwark, The Old Vic Theatre
DestroyedSt Neots, 32 Huntington Street
DestroyedSt Neots, Eaton Socon Pumping Station
DestroyedSt Neots, Eynesbury Pumping Station
DestroyedSt Neots, Howitt's Lane
DestroyedStreatley, Wantage Road
DestroyedSutton Courtenay, Gatehouse
DestroyedSwindon, St Mark's Churchyard
DestroyedThorpeness, Old Homes Road
DestroyedThorpeness, Workmen's Club
DestroyedUllesthorpe, The Swan Inn
DestroyedWallingford, 30 St Mary's Street
DestroyedWallingford, 91 High Street
DestroyedWallingford, Croft Road
DestroyedWallingford, St George's House
DestroyedWallingford, St Mary's Hospital
DestroyedWallingford, Station Road
DestroyedWallingford, Thames Path
DestroyedWallingford, Thames Path
DestroyedWarkworth, 47 Castle Street
DestroyedWarkworth, Masons Arms
DestroyedWarwick, 15 Old Square
DestroyedWarwick, 18 St Nicholas Church Street
DestroyedWarwick, 21 High Street
DestroyedWarwick, 37 High Street
DestroyedWarwick, 7 Smith Street
DestroyedWarwick, St Nicholas Park
DestroyedWarwick, Tink-a-Tank
DestroyedWarwick, Wharf Street
DestroyedWest Hendred, Milestone, Wantage 3
DestroyedWestminster, Hilton London Paddington
DestroyedWestminster, Hyde Park, Disused Fountain
DestroyedWestminster, Kensington Gardens, Coalbrookdale Gate
DestroyedWestminster, Kensington Gardens, Water Pump
DestroyedWestminster, West Carriage Drive
DestroyedWeston-super-Mare, 1 Paragon Road
DestroyedWeston-super-Mare, 1 Salisbury Terrace
DestroyedWeston-super-Mare, 5 Paragon Street
DestroyedWeston-super-Mare, Locking Road Station
DestroyedWeston-super-Mare, Midland Bank
DestroyedWeston-super-Mare, Winter Gardens Pavilion
DestroyedWestray, B9067
DestroyedWherwell, The White Lion (SE)
DestroyedWhitehorse Hill
DestroyedWolverley, Wolverley Bridge
DestroyedWoodbridge, 31 Thoroughfare
DestroyedWoodbridge, Broomheath Railway Bridge
DestroyedWoodbridge, Quay Point
DestroyedWoodbridge, Sea Wall Shelter
DestroyedWoodbridge, Shire Hall
DestroyedYork, 50 Goodramgate
Destroyed3 - Mapledurham Lock
Destroyed4 - Pangbourne, Whitchurch Bridge
Destroyed7 - Cleeve Mill
Destroyed23 - Little Wittenham
Destroyed28 - Abingdon, Burford Bridge
Destroyed29 - Abingdon, Ock Bridge
Destroyed76 - Caversham Hotel
Destroyed2072 - Felixstowe, Martello Tower
Destroyed2763 - Knockin, Bridge
Destroyed2764 - Pentre-clem
Destroyed2942 - Southampton, Empress Dock, Engine House
DestroyedG2525 - Parkway Water Tower
DestroyedG3637 - Crowmarsh Gifford, 7 Benson Lane
DestroyedG3638 - Wallingford Water Works
DestroyedG4044 - Cholsey Hill, Pumping Station
DestroyedG4951 - Penrhos, Bridge Lodge
DestroyedL14 - Wimbledon, Somerset Road
DestroyedS018 - Reydon, Bridge House
DestroyedS0315 - Rhuddlan, Phoenix Lodge
DestroyedS0807 - Faringdon, Coxwell Road
DestroyedS0949 - Mountnessing
DestroyedS0951 - Brentwood, Ongar Road
DestroyedS5553 - Sutton Wick
DestroyedS6270 - Shotton, St Ethelwold's Primary School
DestroyedS7545 - Beaumaris, Grammar School
DestroyedS8105 - Thorpeness, Estate Office
Destroyed11807 - Portsmouth, Cross Street


All the bench marks I have logged. See my profile on the Bench Mark Database.

Show Help

By Type

Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(205)
Projecting BracketProjecting Bracket(6)
OSBM BoltOSBM Bolt(11)
Cut Bench MarkCut Bench Mark(1410)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCut Bench Mark with Bolt(88)
Fundamental BenchmarkFundamental Benchmark(8)
Triangulation PillarTriangulation Pillar(93)
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