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Explanation of Types

Type Description Examples
Flush Bracket These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.  
  One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
5
  S-prefix
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
S0950
S8628
  G-prefix
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
G3646
  L-prefix
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
 
  Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
11328
Projecting Bracket An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes. Reading, Greyfriar's Church
OSBM Bolt Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol. Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge. Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers. Dorchester Abbey
Rivet Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks. Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Pivot Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot. Sutton Bridge
Fundamental Bench Mark These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling. Conwy
Triangulation Pillar Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side. Huntingland
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Cut Bench Mark with Bolt

Cut Bench Mark with BoltAbergele, Gwrych Castle, Entrance Tower
Cut Bench Mark with BoltAlnwick, 1 Lisburn Street
Cut Bench Mark with BoltAlnwick, 11 Narrowgate
Cut Bench Mark with BoltAlnwick, Lion Bridge
Cut Bench Mark with BoltAlnwick, Market Hall
Cut Bench Mark with BoltAlnwick, Pottergate Tower
Cut Bench Mark with BoltAlnwick, St Michael's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltAlnwick, St Paul's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltAlnwick, Town Hall
Cut Bench Mark with BoltAppleby, St Michael's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltBagillt, Church of St Mary and St Peter
Cut Bench Mark with BoltBenson, St Helen's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltBessels Leigh, The Greyhound
Cut Bench Mark with BoltBrecon Cathedral
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCaernarfon, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCambridge, Great Bridge
Cut Bench Mark with BoltChester, Eastgate
Cut Bench Mark with BoltChipping Norton, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCovehithe, St Andrew's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltCromer, St Peter & St Paul's Church (bolt)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltDingwall, Highland Theological College
Cut Bench Mark with BoltDorchester, Abbey Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltEdinburgh 34 Queensferry Street
Cut Bench Mark with BoltEdinburgh, National Monument of Scotland
Cut Bench Mark with BoltEdinburgh, Nelson Monument
Cut Bench Mark with BoltEdinburgh, Old College
Cut Bench Mark with BoltEdinburgh, St John's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltEdinburgh, Tron Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltEdisford Bridge
Cut Bench Mark with BoltEly, Holy Trinity Cathedral
Cut Bench Mark with BoltGloucester, 8 Pitt Street
Cut Bench Mark with BoltGloucester, Greyfriars House
Cut Bench Mark with BoltGloucester, Holy Trinity Cathedral, South Transept
Cut Bench Mark with BoltGloucester, Mariners Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltGloucester, St John the Baptist Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltGloucester, St Mary de Crypt Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltGreenwich, ORNC - King Charles' Quarter
Cut Bench Mark with BoltGreenwich, ORNC - King William's Quarter
Cut Bench Mark with BoltGreenwich, ORNC - Queen Mary's Quarter
Cut Bench Mark with BoltGreenwich, St. Alfege's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltHay-on-Wye, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltHolywell, St James' Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltKeynsham, St John the Baptist Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltKing's Lynn, Greyfriars Tower
Cut Bench Mark with BoltKing's Lynn, St Margaret's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltKingston Bagpuize, St John the Baptist Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLeicester, County Gaol
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLeicester, Holy Cross Centre
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLeyburn, St Peter and St Paul RC Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLlanddulas, Hen Wrych Lodge
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLlanddulas, River Dulas Bridge
Cut Bench Mark with BoltLongworth, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltNottingham, St. Mary's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltNottingham, St. Peter's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltNuffield, Holy Trinity Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltOswestry, St Oswald's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltOxford, County Hall
Cut Bench Mark with BoltOxford, St Thomas the Martyr's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltOxford, St. Mary Magdalen's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltOxford, St. Michael's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltPaddington St James, Sussex Gardens
Cut Bench Mark with BoltPlymouth, 7 Castle Dyke Lane
Cut Bench Mark with BoltPlymouth, North Road Railway Bridge
Cut Bench Mark with BoltPlymouth, Royal Citadel, West Sally Port
Cut Bench Mark with BoltPlymouth, St Peter's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltPoole, St James' Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltReading, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltRhuddlan, Rhuddlan Bridge
Cut Bench Mark with BoltRhuddlan, St Mary's Church (SW)
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSalisbury, St Mary's Cathedral
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSalisbury, St Thomas's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSaxmundham, St John the Baptist Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSouthampton, South Gate
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSouthampton, St Michael's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSouthampton, West Gate
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSouthwold, St Edmund's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSouthwold, United Reformed Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltSt Ives, St Ia's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWarborough, St Laurence's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWarwick, 24 Mill Street
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWarwick, St. Mary's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWarwick, St. Nicholas's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWest Runton, Holy Trinity Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWestminster, Lower Grosvenor Place
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWeston-super-Mare, Emmanuel Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWoodbridge, St Mary's Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltWooler, St Ninian's RC Church
Cut Bench Mark with BoltYork, York Minster
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Explanation of Types
Flush BracketFlush Bracket(205)
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RivetRivet(96)
PivotPivot(58)
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UnknownUnknown(238)
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