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Explanation of Types
These are rectangular metal plates affixed to triangulation pillars, walls, buildings etc. If they are not affixed to a triangulation pillar they are often referred to as Non-Pillar Flush Brackets (NPFB). They are about 6" x 3" in size and the location of most of them is known through Ordnance Survey (OS) records. Each Flush Bracket (FB) has a unique serial number which makes them highly 'collectable' and there are several numbering types.
One to four figure number
The earliest FBs you can find and date from 1912-1921. Numbered from 1-3000. A few can be found on triangulation pillars.
Introduced in the 1920s these are found on pillars and as NPFBs. There are two sub-types, S below the number and S left of the number.
First appeared in 1936. Unlike S-series brackets numbers below 1000 do not have leading zeroes. Used extensively in Scotland and never found on triangulation pillars.
Just sixteen brackets used in London in the early 1930s.
Five figure number
These are effectively S-series brackets above S9999 where they ran out of room for the S (S-below was discontinued as the S interfered with the measuring equipment).
An early type of metal bracket used for a short time before the introduction of flush brackets. They are all the same and have no unique attributes.
Reading, Greyfriar's Church
Used alongside the G-series of flush brackets these are placed where there wasn't a convenient building or wall to provide a vertical surface on which to affix a flush bracket. They are domed metal bolts about 1" (50-60mm) in diameter fixed to horizontal surfaces engraved with OSBM and the benchmark symbol.
Caban Coch Dam
Cut Bench Mark
By far the most common type. Used and made from the 1800s to around 20 years ago. You won't have to walk (or drive) very far in any village, town or city in Britain before you spot one of these. Chiseled into stone, brick or wood on all sorts of vertical structures. A familiar horizontal levelling line with a three line arrow pointing towards it (usually upwards). Each one is unique depending on the mason who cut it, some are plain, some decorated. Some roughly cut, some exquisitely cut with high accuracy. Some small, some huge.
Wallingford, 60 High Street
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt
Old and rare these have a metal bolt screwed either alongside the horizontal cut of a cut bench mark or at the point of the cut arrowhead. Usually has what appears as a screwhead horizontal in the head of the bolt. These are highly prized by benchmarkers.
Usually found on horizontal surfaces these are cut marks with a small metal domed brass rivet at the apex of the cut arrowhead marks.
Swyncombe, Icknield Field
Fairly rare these are used on horizontal surfaces such as soft sandstone, where the insertion of a rivet would break away the stone. They consist of a small hole or depression cut to take a pivot, a steel ball bearing of 5/8" diameter (16mm). In use, the pivot is placed in the depression and the levelling staff held on top of the pivot.
Fundamental Bench Mark
These are the key to the whole levelling of the UK. Granite blocks with large domed metal caps. Just like an iceberg this is just the tip of a fairly extensive underground structure. Highly accurate height stations still used today as the baseline to levelling.
Familiar to anyone who walks in the British countryside, these can often (but not always) be found at hilltops. Most have a flush bracket affixed to one side.
Heart of the Shires Shopping Village
S6434 - Witney, 1 High Street
Hithercroft, Bradford's Brook Bridge
Didcot, Fulscot Bridge
Didcot, Foxhall Bridge
Didcot, West Curve Bridge
Royal Leamington Spa, 168 Parade
Royal Leamington Spa, The Warwick Arms
Royal Leamington Spa, Town Hall
Royal Leamington Spa, Victoria Bridge
Royal Leamington Spa, All Saints' Church
Royal Leamington Spa, Bath Street railway bridge
Royal Leamington Spa, High Street Railway Bridge
529 - Royal Leamington Spa, Clemens Street
Royal Leamington Spa, Gas Bridge
Warwick, Avon Aqueduct
Warwick, Jephson's Farm Bridge
Warwick, Railway Aqueduct
Warwick, Leam Bridge
Berinsfield, Culvert NE Side A4074
North Moreton, All Saints' Church
Wantage, 12 Newbury Street
Maidensgrove, Pages Bottom
Maidensgrove, Pages Farm
Nuffield, Huntercombe End Farm
Oxford, 13 Iffley Turn
G2377 - Shepshed, Baptist Church
Pilton, Summers Hill Lane
Wallingford, 30 St Mary's Street
Culham, Thame Lane
Brightwell-cum-Sotwell, St James' Church
Brightwell-cum-Sotwell, Church House
Brightwell-cum-Sotwell, Bell Cottage
Clifton Hampden, Furze Brake (East)
Clifton Hampden, Furze Brake (West)
Warborough, Court Farm
Warborough, Thame Road
Warborough, Upper Farm
Shillingford, 2a Warborough Road
Benson, Hale Farm
Warborough, St Laurence's Church
Dorchester-on-Thames, Wittenham Lane
Burcot, 1 School Cottages
Dorchester-on-Thames, 67 High Street
Shillingford Bridge, North End
Shillingford Bridge, East Parapet
Wallingford, Rush Court
Wallingford, Shillingford Road
Wallingford, Castle Street Pump House
11327 - Wantage, Council Offices
Long Wittenham, Little Wittenham Road
Wallingford, St Peter's Church
S7157 - Broom Farm
S8393 - Dimmock's Cote Bridge
Bushmead, Home Farm
St Neots, 39 King's Road
St Neots, 55 Avenue Road
St Neots, 32 Huntington Street
Everton, Everton Crossing
S5952 - Sutton
Hinxworth, 8 Bean Cottages
Edworth, Topler's Hill Water Tower
Biggleswade, Furzenhall Road
Everton, St Mary's Church
Everton, Methodist Church
Ely, 17 Silver Street
Ely, King's School
Ely, The Gallery
Ely, The Lamb Inn
Ely, 39 Market Street
Ely, 15 Market Place
Ely, High Street
Ely, The Old Sacristy
Ely, Wall Northeast of Cathedral
Ely, Wall South of Cathedral
Ely, Holy Trinity Cathedral
Ely, 4 Church Lane
Ely, 54 Silver Street
Sandy, The Lodge
Honeydon, Lower Honeydon Farm
Little Staughton, All Saints' Church
Kimbolton, Kimbolton Castle
Kimbolton, St Andrew's Church
Stonely, Main Road
Dillington, Corner Farm
Grafham, All Saints' Church
Hail Weston, St Nicholas's Church
St Neots, Eaton Socon Pumping Station
Eaton Socon, St Mary's Church
St Neots, Rivermill Tavern
St Neots, Eaton Socon Lock
St Neots, Eynesbury Pumping Station
St Neots, 27 New Street
St Neots, 17 Berkley Street
Eynesbury, St Mary's Church
St Neots, Howitt's Lane
St Neots, 6 Eynesbury Green
St Neots, St Mary's Church
Denchworth, South Denchworth Farm
Tubney, Fox Cottage
Kennington, Sandford Lane
Checkendon, Lovegrove's Farm
Oxford, Military Barracks, New Road
Lyford, Flapp's Barn
Abingdon, St Helen's Church
Great Campstone, Campstone Cottages
G3924 - Chepstow Racecourse, Lions Lodge
Weston, Cubbage Cottage
Lower Harpton, Lower Harpton Farm
Great Wollaston, St John the Baptist Church
Ponthen, Bontain Farm
915 - Brecon, St. Mary's Church
S9950 - Sinah Farm
2461 - Southbourne, St John the Evangelist Church
S1693 - Fullerton
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Explanation of Types
Cut Bench Mark
Cut Bench Mark with Bolt